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Section 12A... The Occult/

 

003white Index To Section 12A The Occult         >        Paganism

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Paganism

Please Note: Each coloured link within the articles will lead you to a related topic on a different page of this site. However while the text is part of the original articles, the links are not. The authors of these articles may or may not agree with the views expressed on those pages.

ALSO SEE The Message of the Bible   and  The Warnng of The Bible

ON THIS PAGE

Paganism (An Overview)
Some Christian Observations on Paganism and Wicca
Evaluation of neopagan polytheism and feminism

 

What Is Paganism?
“The term "Pagan" comes from a Latin word for "country dweller" first used in early Christian times to refer to those not yet converted to Christianity. "Pagan" was an epithet that cast aspersions on those not seen as "true believers." Today, it refers more generally to the faith of those whose spiritual center is drawn to native and natural religions, usually pantheistic or polytheistic, and almost always earth-centered.” ....

... modern Pagans have a love and reverence for this world and the physical plane generally. The rational is seen as important. Great emphasis is also placed on the intuitive, however, and the belief that the physical and non-physical worlds are equally real, and are interconnected, interpenetrating manifestations of nature. This means that spiritual work, whether called meditation, prayer, or magic, and whether done as ritual, worship, or celebration, is efficacious and can result in changes in the physical world. The majority of Pagans also believe in the survival of the consciousness or soul after physical death. {1}


 Pagans Beliefs

While there is no set of beliefs shared by all Pagans, most would agree that similarities far outweigh differences. There are a number of beliefs held by the vast majority of modern Pagans. Some of these are:

    Divinity is seen as immanent.

    Divinity is as likely to manifest itself in female as male form, the God or the Goddess, in the interconnectedness of all life.

    Multiple paths to the divine exist, as symbolized by many goddesses and gods. These are often seen as archetypes or gateways to the unconscious.

    We respect and love Mother Earth as a living being, Gaia, of which we are a part.

    The physical world, as an emanation of the divine, is good and to be enjoyed by all living beings in love and harmony.

    Ethics and morality are based on avoidance of harm to other beings, including Earth as a whole, which mandates environmental activism as a spiritual responsibility.

    Human interdependence implies the need for community cooperation.

    The solar and lunar cycles and the cycles of our lives are celebrated. This leads to the maintenance and revival of old customs and the creation of new ones.

    A strong commitment to personal and planetary growth, evolution, and balance are vital.

    One's lifestyle must be consistent with one's beliefs. The personal is political.

    A minimum of dogma and a maximum of individual responsibility in all things are goals to strive for. Thus a healthy skepticism is to be fostered, and ideas are not to be accepted without personal investigation of their validity.

    Messiahs and gurus are to be avoided. The mediation of another being is unnecessary for an individual to commune with Deity. Power-from-within is preferred to power-over.

    All beings are personal emanations of the Divine. Thou art Goddess, thou art God. {2}


Worship
As Pagans have no public buildings specifically set aside for worship, and most believe that religious ceremonies are best conducted out of doors, rituals often take place in woods or caves, on hilltops, or along the seashore. To Pagans the finest places of worship are those not built by human hands - as well as at stone circles, in parks, and private homes and gardens. Women and men almost always worship together, with women normally taking the leading role as representative of the pre-eminence of the female principle.

Ceremonies usually begin with the marking out of a ritual circle, a symbol of sacred space which has neither beginning nor end, and within which all stand as equals. At the quarter-points, the four directions and the corresponding elements of Earth, Air, Fire and Water will be acknowledged and bid welcome.

There may follow, according to the purpose of the rite, any or all of meditation, chanting, music, prayer, dance, the pouring of libations, recitations of poetry and/or the performance of sacred drama, and the sharing of food and drink. Lastly the circle will be formally unmade, the directions, elements, and all the forms of divinity that have been called upon thanked, as the rite ends.” {3}

“Rituals may include meditation, chanting, drumming, myth- and story-telling, ritual drama, dance, and so on. Deeper ritual work is most often practiced at private gatherings, which for many traditions coincide with the phases of the moon. The work may include more intense raising of energy, healing work, and personal spiritual development”. {4}


Paganism and Satanism
Wicca is not synonymous with Satan worship. The idea of the devil is Christian in nature and does not exist in Neo-Pagan religions. {5}


Paganism and Feminism:
“There is also a close connection between neopaganism and feminism. Of course, not all neopagans are feminists, and not all feminists are neopagans. Nonetheless, neopaganism has a magnetic pull on many feminists. Margot Adler describes the dynamics this way: "Many feminist Witchcraft covens have....attracted women from all walks of life. But even there, most of these women have already been strengthened by the feminist movement, or by consciousness-raising groups, or by an important experience such as divorce, separation, or a homosexual encounter." (Adler, 37) {7}

One neopagan feminist put it this way: "We have found that women working together are capable of conjuring their past and reawakening their old ascendancy.... This does not seem to happen when men are present....It seems that in mixed covens, no matter how 'feminist' the women are, a kind of competition begins to happen. Among the women alone, none of this occurs, and a great reciprocity develops, unlike anything I have seen before." (Adler, 124). {8} {TOP OF PAGE}

 

References

{1} (http://www.paganlibrary.com/introductory/modern_paganism.php)

{2}(http://www.paganlibrary.com/introductory/modern_paganism.php)

{3}http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/paganism/worship/index.shtml

{4} (http://www.paganlibrary.com/introductory/modern_paganism.php)

{5}http://www.draknetfree.com/witchespath/Witchcraft/About.html

{7} Norman L. Geisler “Neopaganism, feminism, and the new polytheism” Cited in Time, 23 May 1983, 37)

{8} Norman L. Geisler “Neopaganism, feminism, and the new polytheism” Cited in Time, 23 May 1983, 124)

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Some Christian Observations on Paganism and Wicca

© Spotlight Ministries, Vincent McCann, 2002
www.spotlightministries.org.uk

The following article has been written from a variety of different sources. These include: My own former experience with Witchcraft and occultism in general prior to my conversion to Christ, reading various Pagan and Wiccan literature, having Pagan and Wiccan friends, and having numerous email, message board, and chat room dialogues with those in the Pagan communities. This article will seek to identify, and assess, issues relevant to both Pagans and Christians alike, in a fair and balanced manner.


Ecology
Pagans of all persuasions revere nature. In fact, many individuals are attracted to Paganism as a direct result of a connection that they feel with the world around them and the beauty of the world they see. This reverence for nature leads many Pagans to the conclusion that the world itself must be divine.

    ""Our religion is about the sacredness of this life on this Earth, here and now. We are "Nature worshipers" so Nature is a sacred study for us. To paraphrase, we want to see Her more clearly, love Her more dearly, and follow her more nearly. Any ecological study, any bird watching, or other such activities, help us to understand Mother Gaia." (Chas S. Clifton (ed.), Modern Rites of Passage: Witchcraft Today, Book Two, 1994, p. 99).

Many Christians could probably be more involved in the preservation of the planet in which we live. This, in and of itself is indeed a noble cause. Christians also recognize the beauty in the world around them, but stop short of seeing it as divine in some way. The Bible speaks of the wonder of the created realm in which we live, but goes on to reveal that this has been put in place so that people would go further and reach out for the Person who created it:

    "...that which is know about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood by what has been made, so that they are without excuse." (Romans 1:19-20)

I cannot help but feel that Pagans and Wiccans look at the world around them, see the work of God, but then stop short of going further and looking for the Creator, and instead look to the creation itself. This is somewhat like commending a sculpture rather than the one who sculptured it. The Bible also comments on this by stating the following:

    "...they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator..." (Romans 1:25)


The Church
Many Pagans and Wiccans feel that they have been treated badly by the Church throughout history. There is certainly much truth in such a view. At times, the established Church has treated witches in terrible ways. However, a lot of Wiccans may not know that it wasn't just the witches who were persecuted. Another group also suffered. Who were they? True Christian believers! At various times throughout Christian history, evil and unregenerate men have infiltrated the established Church and caused it to fall into apostasy. During such times, true believers have separated themselves, but then found themselves being savagely persecuted. Those who persecuted both Pagans and true Christians were not really Christians themselves, but rather corrupt and evil men who took the opportunity of infiltrating the established Church for their own selfish gain. That other Christians were also persecuted, along with many other groups, by the Church is acknowledged by authorities in Wicca:

    "All the religious and magical practices on which the Catholic Church did not bestow its blessings - other Christian sects, Paganism, and magic, - were now lumped together. Whatever their aims and virtues, they were declared to be Devil worship...Despite fierce attempts to persecute those Christians whose views did not accord with Catholicism, the heretical sects which later transmuted into the Protestant movement flourished and grew strong." (Vivianne Crowley, Wicca, (Revised and updated ed.), pp. 19-20, emphasis added).

Also See The Hypocrisy Excuse and The Real Murderers - Atheism or Christianity? and section on The Catholic Church

In modern times, the world may look to the trouble in Northern Ireland between "Catholics" and "Protestants" and the killings which occur between the two camps. True Christianity does not seek to harm its neighbour, but rather seeks to obey the commandment of Christ which states: "You shall love your neighbour as yourself" (Mark 12:31). True Christians have had a life changing experience with Jesus Christ and would certainly seek to distance themselves from all violence, hate, and persecution of others. The very fact that someone, labels themselves 'Christian' does not always automatically mean that they are a true follower of Jesus Christ, no matter who he or she may be. Indeed, the Bible even warns us that false Christians will come and attempt to bring shame upon the message of the Gospel of Jesus (e.g. 2 Peter 2:1-3; 2 Corinthians 11:13, 26; Galatians 2:4; 1 John 3:15, etc.).

Many Pagans may have had first hand bad experiences with churches, or professing Christians. This is, of course, very unfortunate. However, it may be worth mentioning two points regarding this. Firstly, it should be noted that not everyone who attends a Church is a Christian. There are many, who for various and varied reasons, attend Church of a Sunday, but are not actually Christians. It is easy to focus on such individuals when their life does not conform with Christian principles and then tar everyone with the same brush. Secondly, it must be confessed that even true Christians are by no means perfect. Christians still have a sin nature which, sadly, causes them to fail at times.

Many Pagans and Wiccans tend to look at the sins of the Church and use this as justification to turn away from following Jesus Christ. On account of this many have, sadly, missed Jesus altogether. However, the Bible never tells us to fix our eyes on what the Church is, or is not, doing but rather to `fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith' (Hebrews 12:2).


The Devil - A Christian Invention?
Most Wiccans do not believe in a personal entity called Satan or the Devil. Many will say that this being is simply something that the Christian Church has invented in order to control people with fear. However, well before the birth of the Christian Church, the Jews also believed in the existence of Satan. He first appears in the form of a serpent in the book of Genesis. Another Jewish source where Satan is seen as a personal being is in the book of Job. In its opening chapters, there is dialogue occurring between Satan and God, implying, of course, that both are personal beings. Other Pagans may be willing to admit that there is an evil force, or forces, in the world but that this is not to be thought of as a personal being. However, throughout the Bible the following personal attributes are attributed to Satan:

He speaks (Job 1:6-2:1-5; Matt 4:1-11); he has a will (1 Chron. 21:1; Luke 22:31; 1 Thess. 2:18; 2 Tim. 2:26); he tempts (Matt. 4:1-11; 1 Cor. 7:5); and he oppressors people (Acts 10:38), all characteristics that we would expect from a personal being, not a symbol of abstract force.

Throughout history, and to this very day, millions of people have testified to encounters with very real spiritual forces of evil. Are we really to conclude that all these people were simply lying, or maybe hallucinating? Indeed many of these people did not come from a Christian world view and so the concept of a Devil or demons were not at the forefront of their minds prior to these experiences. However, for those who have become Christians, their faith, and what the Bible says about the Devil and the spirits which are under his command, has enabled them to make sense of their experiences.

The truth is, the Devil was not simply invented by the Church, but rather exists as a reality in the world today. One of the most effective deceptions he performs is to try and convince people he does not exist! Jesus called Satan "The father of lies" (John 8:44). It should therefore come as no surprise that he will seek to convince people that he does not exist.

Paganism and Wicca promote all kinds of various rituals, which have to be adhered to in particular ways to get the desired results. However, religious ceremonies (including ceremonies in some parts of Christianity too!), do not bring people true freedom, but rather enslave people. Prior to my conversion to Christianity, I can recall in my own experience with Wicca that I had to perform certain rituals, in a certain manner, having the right ingredients, etc. and often repeat this over a period of time, for a spell to work. Certainly, many Pagans may not consider this to be enslaving, but speaking as a Christian, and looking back to what I was involved in, I can see that it never brought true liberty. The Bible speaks about serving God from the heart. Any religious acts that we are engaged in should not come as a result of feeling that we have to do them, but rather, we do them spontaneously, out of love for Him (see Ephesians 2:8-10).


The gods, goddesses, and spirits of Paganism
Most of those who are involved in Paganism hold to a belief in a multitude of gods, goddesses and various spirit beings. Pagan writer, Prudence Jones, observes that a pagan religion

    "...is polytheistic, recognizing a plurality of divine beings... " (Prudence Jones, Paganism Today, p. 34).

But can these spirits really be relied upon? Can they be trusted? Again, Prudence Jones observes the following: [See Channeling]

    "When the world is seen as filled with the gods, however, it can be easy to lose ones inner focus of control. Superstition results: the synchronicities of the world are seen as controlling everything, and the human being seems to have no power faced with the enveloping multitude of otherworldly forces whose influence can be read in every portent." (Prudence Jones, Paganism Today, p. 38).

Jones touches on some very good points here. There have been many people who have practiced various aspects of the occult and have had dealings with spirits, but at some point or another, have felt that they no longer have control over the forces which they call upon, but rather, they themselves are being swept along by forces beyond their control. This was certainly my own experience, and has been the experience of countless others, who's experiences I have also heard. The truth is, that these spirits are highly intelligent and powerful evil spirit beings who are intent on manipulating and deceiving humanity, and leading people away from the true freedom and salvation which is to be found in Jesus Christ.

See Faith and The Bible Anyone can claim to be divine, or divinely inspired. What we need to do is stop checking our brains in at the door and ask the million dollar question, i.e. what evidence supports the many claims made by various religions, whether it comes from the founder of the religion, their holy book, or one of the leaders/teachers of that religion?


Patriarchal Issues
Christianity is often viewed as a male religion, amongst those in the Pagan community. Jesus was male and God is spoken of in masculine terms. But it should be noted that God is not a human being, but rather a Spirit (John 4:26). Nor is He male or female, as He transcends human sexuality, being outside the realms of the created order Himself. So why address Him as a He? One of the reasons for this is simply that we need to address God in some way. The Bible rules out the idea that He is an impersonal force of some kind and instead refers to Him in personal terms. By addressing Him as a `He' the ancient Israelites were able to identify with the image of a father and all that went with such an image (Alister E. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction, pp. 205-207).


Curses

Although many Wiccans do steer away from putting curses on others, there are others who will become involved in the cursing of an enemy. I know that this was certainly the case in my own experience in the occult. I had a close friend who called himself "a white witch", but had no qualms about cursing someone who got in his way, or whom he simply took a dislike to! The truth is, that despite the denials of some of those who practice white witchcraft, the practice of cursing one's enemies is prevalent in the craft. For example, Witchcraft author, Susan Greenwood, explains:

    "Witchcraft rituals may be performed for healing..., or, as one wiccan explained to me, they may be enacted for 'the grey area of magic' - 'hexing', 'sending' and 'fetching' energy for a specific purpose, or 'binding'" (Susan Greenwood, Magic, Witchcraft and the Otherworld: An Anthropology, p. 200).

The practice of cursing one's enemies in Wicca, if admitted, is usually qualified with the explanation that it is only ever performed on those who deserve it, such as against a violent offender etc. However, this is a definite grey area, as individual witches have different views on when they have been wronged and exactly who should be hexed. Again, Greenwood explains:

    "The Dianic Witch, Z. Budapest in The Holy Book of Women's Mysteries says that if women hex rapists or others who 'commit crimes of patriarchy', there is no divine retribution. She gives instructions on how to perform a 'Righteous Hex', for 'violent criminals only' and when you 'know, not just think' that someone has harmed you' (1990). But I have heard mention of hexing being done between witches for more mundane reasons, over quarrels about money for example, or to gain retribution against an employer who was unsympathetic." (Susan Greenwood, Magic, Witchcraft and the Otherworld: An Anthropology, p. 201).

The Bible answer to revenge, is to not take it yourself, but to allow God, the Judge of all humanity, administer any necessary punishment: "For we know Him who has said, "Vengeance belongs to Me; I will repay," says the Lord. And again, "The Lord will judge His people. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God." (Heb. 10:30-31, LITV).

An atmosphere of curses can create both very real spiritual problems and elements of fear and paranoia. Interestingly, Pagan writer Prudence Jones, said the following with regards to this very issue:

      "When anything goes wrong in our lives, it is too easy to accuse our nearest enemy of bringing this about by magical means, and if necessary to take magical revenge against them. Such an attitude of blame without proof can trap people in a constant cycle of vendetta and fear of vendetta, leaching energy from ordinary life." (Prudence Jones, Paganism Today, p. 40).

For those who turn to Christ, all curses are broken (no matter how strong!), as Christ became a "curse for us" when He died on the cross for each one of us to take away our sins (see Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:21).

Conclusion
If you are a Wiccan or Pagan, and have read this far, then thank you for being willing to consider a Christian perspective on your religion. I hope that some misconceptions about what you may have perceived Christianity to be have been cleared up. Is it possible that, in the past, you have actually rejected a caricature of Christianity rather than true Christianity? Are you willing to re-examine the life and the claims of Christ? I think that if you sincerely make such a fresh re-examination you will be very surprised. I have spoken with Wiccans and Pagans in the past who have made such an investigation and been amazed at the misconceptions which they have had about Christianity.

    In fairness to my Wiccan and Pagan friends, it has to be said that misunderstandings also occur from Christians as well. If you are a Christian I hope that some of the misconceptions you may have had about Paganism and Wicca have been addressed. Prayerfully take some of this information and share it in a sensitive manner with your pagan friends. {TOP OF PAGE}

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An Evaluation of Neopagan Polytheism and Feminism
by Norman Geisler 
Dean of Southern Evangelical Seminary, Charlotte, North Carolina

There are many obvious condemnations of neopagan polytheism in the Bible, but my evaluation here will be strictly philosophical. In the interest of fairness I will limit my criticisms to questions of coherence or internal consistency. The first four criticisms apply to polytheism in general. The rest are directed at the neopagan feminist forms.

The Denial of Rationality. In keeping with their mystical orientation, many neopolytheists are at root irrationalists. Miller's dismissal of any system that operates "according to fixed concepts and categories" and is controlled by an either/or kind of logic is a case in point. He rejects the idea that something is "either true or false, either this or that, either beautiful or ugly, either good or evil." {1} What he fails to notice, however, is that in contending that his own polytheism is true as opposed to false he has engaged in an either/or type of thinking. Everything cannot be true, including opposites. So, if it is either polytheism or monotheism, then one cannot deny the validity of either/or type thinking. In fact, the polytheist cannot avoid such thinking, otherwise his or her position cannot be made intelligible.

The Denial of Ultimate Unity. There is also a self-defeating nature to the polytheistic denial of ultimate unity. Everything cannot be radically pluralistic. We live in a uni-verse not a multi-verse. Indeed, the polytheistic position is offered as a unified system of thought. But in presenting a unified thought about ultimate reality, they deny the very philosophy they are advocating. If reality were radically polytheistic we could not even know it. Any claim to know ultimate reality betrays a more basic commitment to a unity of thought that denies the polytheistic view.

Failure to Ask the Ultimate Question. While some pagan religions speak of origins, few ask the ultimate question. There are gods acting, but — as C. S. Lewis noted — they fail to ask: "How does a play originate? Does it write itself? Do the actors make it up as they go along? Or is there someone — not on the stage, not like the people on stage — someone we don't see — who invented it all and caused it to be? — this is rarely asked or answered." If they did, they would see that nature is created. And, Lewis adds, "to say that God created Nature, while it brings God and Nature into relation, also separates them. What makes and what is made must be two, not one. Thus the doctrine of Creation in one sense empties Nature of divinity" {2} and thereby destroys paganism.

Failure to Submit to the Ultimate God. Furthermore, if the pagan realized that "Nature and God were distinct; the One had made the other; the One ruled and the other obeyed," then he or she would not worship the gods but rather the God. As Lewis observed, "the difference between believing in God and in many gods is not one of arithmetic. [For] 'gods' is not really the plural of God; God has no plural." {3} But herein is revealed the depravity of polytheism. For they prefer to worship a god they make, rather than the God who made them. As one neopagan concluded: "I realized it wasn't so outrageous, and that we could choose what deities to follow....[For] the element of Christianity that bothered...[me] was its requirement to be submissive to the deity." He adds, "Gods have similar characteristics to humans....To some extent they are flawed and that makes them more approachable." {4} In biblical language this is a vivid confession of the fact that they "suppress the truth in unrighteousness....and change the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man...." (Rom. 1:18, 23).

Creedal Pronouncements. Many neopagan witches flatly reject the idea of The Witches' Bible (written by Gavin and Yvonne Frost), fuming at "the word the, since the book, in their view, had nothing to do with their religion." They claim that modern pagans "remain anti-authoritarian," taking pride in themselves as being "the most flexible and adaptable of religions, since it is perfectly willing to throw out dogmas...." {5}.

Their protests notwithstanding, neopaganism has its own creeds and dogmas. First of all, even a Wicca Priestess admits: "I've seen a lot of people in the Craft get hung up on fragments of ritual and myth. Some people accept these fragments as a dogma." Second, while protesting creeds Adler lays down a set of "basic beliefs" which she claims "most people in this book share." {6} She seems blissfully unaware that a creed is by any other name still a creed. The creed she confesses is informative. In her own words:

The world is holy. Nature is holy. The body is holy. Sexuality is holy. The mind is holy. The imagination is holy. You are holy....Thou art Goddess. Thou art God. Divinity is immanent in all Nature. It is as much within you as without. {7}

There are several standard doctrines of neopaganism in this creed, including pantheism, polytheism, animism, self-deificationism, and — more covertly — free sexual expression.

On April 11-14, 1974 The Council of American Witches hammered out a creed they called "Principles of Wiccan Belief." It should be no surprise that they came up with a list of thirteen basic principles! These include practicing "Rites to attune ourselves with the natural rhythm of life forces," living in harmony with Nature (ecological balance), and belief in the "Creative Power in the Universe" manifest in male and female polarities. Interestingly, they disavowed Devil worship and the belief that Christianity is "the only way." {8} It is clear that they think this is the only way to believe about Christianity.

Reversed Sexism. It is ironic indeed that the very complaint that gave rise to the feminist movement is (for many) their own manifest sin. The admission that neopagan witchcraft appeals to feminists because it offers women a role as a "superior" sex is self-condemning. And the existence of many women-only groups is further condemnation of their sexist practices. Add to this the so-called "monotheistic" worship of only the female Goddess and we have, by their own standards, sexism on the highest level. Certainly, neopagan feminism has lost all ground to complain about so-called "sexist" language in the Bible. Morgan McFarland spoke of the desirably unique spiritual experience that women alone have, as opposed to what is possible when males are present.{9} What is this but de facto religious sexism by their own definition? One can scarcely imagine a male-dominated group suggesting the same without the whole feminist movement coming down on its defenseless heads.

Spiritual Exclusivism. If there is one thing in which neopaganism prides itself it is inclusivism and diversity. They usually insist that they have no creeds and allow total diversity of expression. For example, in theory one can worship any god he or she wishes to worship. However, in practice it is a different matter, as is evidenced by several factors. First, the very existence of secret "covens" reveals the exclusivistic nature of the group.

Second, the existence of an initiation rite is an earmark of exclusiveness. In defense, witches claim "initiation is primarily a method to protect the institution of the Craft from people calling themselves 'witches' who are insincere, 'evil' or would give the Craft a bad name." {10} However, why try to distinguish the "sincere" from the insincere or protect it from "evil" unless there is some genuine form to be preserved?

Third, many neopagans claim that "Witchcraft was once the universal religion, which has been driven underground to service in secret, with much being lost." {11} What is this claim to universality but an implicit exclusivism — a claim to be the most legitimate or authentic religion?

Fourth, even the "Principles of Wiccan Belief" adopted by The Council of American Witches has a strong statement excluding the belief that Christianity is " the only way." They frankly acknowledge this as "our only animosity toward Christianity." {12} What most all-inclusivistic groups seem to not understand is that every truth claim is exclusive. For if C (say, Christianity) is true, then of necessity all non-C is false. Likewise, if P (polytheism) is true, then all non-P is false. The neopagan religion of Wicca is just as exclusivistic as any other religion that claims to have discovered truth about reality.

Fifth, neopagans affirm that "polytheism always includes monotheism. The reverse is not true." {13} "Includes" is not the proper word; "absorbs" or "swallows" would be a more accurate description. For while giving the appearance of being all-inclusive, it is extremely exclusive of all orthodox forms of monotheism. In other words, it is "open" to anything that does not oppose its own view. In short, it conceals its own exclusivism under a cloak of inclusivistic language. But down underneath it believes that the only way is to deny there is an only way.

See The Case For Christianity
It is tragically true that few of those who believe 'all spiritual beliefs are valid paths to God" seem to have made an in depth study of various religions to see if their claims are based on fact, or fairy dust.There is far more evidence in favor of the Bible being true, than there is for any of the other 'holy books' like the Qur’an, the Bhagavad-Gita, the writings of Confucius, or the Book of Mormon. This evidence includes it's humanly impossible authorship, it's candor about the faults and failings of it's main characters, fulfilled prophecy, and it's archaeological and scientific accuracy... none of which are seen in the books of other religions.

{TOP OF PAGE}

References:

1) Miller, 7.
2) C. S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1958), 79-80.
3) Ibid., 78, 82.
4) Cited in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 12 Dec. 1985, 2A.
5) Adler, 126, ix, 135.
6) Ibid., 88, ix.
7) Ibid., ix.
8) Ibid., 101-3.
9) Ibid., 124.
10) Ibid., 98.
11) Ibid., 66.
12) Ibid., 103.
13) Ibid., viii.

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