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Section 2.. A Remarkable Book Called The Bible/
Scientific Facts in The Bible

 

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Scientific Facts In The Bible - Part II

Carol Brooks

Also See

003white Original Sin and Epigenetics
In Romans 5 Paul seemed to be saying that something happened to all humanity because of Adam’s sin. The entire human race was affected - not by sinning themselves, but by Adam’s sin. These statements are very intriguing especially since they fly in the face of innumerable other verses that say exactly the opposite. However the emerging field of Epigenetics makes it quite to believe that Paul was more on target than he could ever have realized. The ‘something’ that Paul referred to could very well have been a physical change in Adam and Eve’s epigenome, which was then inherited by future generations. This might be the most astounding scientific fact in the Bible that remained hidden from human knowledge for close to two thousand years

 Anthropic Principles
Scientists are now finding that the universe in which we live is like a diamond studded Rolex, except the universe is even more precisely designed than the watch. In fact, the universe is specifically tweaked to enable life on earth.

 Errors in The Qur’an, which Contradict Secular and Scientific Data
Contrast the information on this page with the scientific knowledge of the Qur’an. For example Sura 18:86 states "Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water:
 

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PAGE I (Previous Page)

The Universe
Time and Space, The Beginning, An Initial Void, God Stretches Out The Heavens, i.e. The Universe is Expanding

The Book Of Job
The Hole In The North, Space is Empty, Air Has Weight, The Host of Heaven

The Earth
Atoms, The Earth is a Sphere, The Orbit of The Sun, Gravitational Properties of Constellations
Pangaea and Peleg, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, Talking Lightning?, The Hydrologic Cycle

The Oceans
The Paths Of The Seas, Mountains Under The Seas, Springs Under The Seas


PAGE II
(This Page)

Misc
The Dinosaur and Why it Disappeared, Those Industrious Ants, Could Noah's Ark Float?

Man
Adam And Eve, Life is in the Blood, Blood Clotting in Infants, A Merry Heart

Medical Knowledge in Ancient Times
Moses vs. The Egyptians, Sanitary Practices in the 19th Century, Sanitary Practices in Moses' Time
The Minoans and The Romans, Leprosy and Plague
 
003white  Old Testament Dietary Guidelines
Pork and its Connection with Various Diseases, Shellfish

The End Times
Ancient Descriptions of a Nuclear Explosion, The Second Coming Takes Place During The Day AND Night


Verses Wrongly Taken as Proof of Scientific Knowledge
HERE
The Treasures of The Snow, Seed of a Woman, Singing Stars

 

Misc

The Dinosaur:
There is reasonable evidence that the Scriptures speak of dinosaurs. As should be expected, this evidence comes from Genesis - the book of origins, and from the book of Job, generally believed to be the oldest book in the Bible.

1) Genesis 1:21 speaks of God creating living creatures including great sea monsters (Heb. tannîym) on the fifth day of creation. In almost every other instance, the Hebrew word tannîym is translated serpent or dragons. For example,

    When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, 'Work a miracle,' then you shall say to Aaron, 'Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, that it may become a serpent (Heb. tannîym).' (Exodus 7:9 NASB)

2) Job's statements concerning the behemoth (Job 40:15-24) might be referring to dinosaurs. Its tail is compared to a cedar tree. Its strength, and apparently its bulk, is in its loins. Its bones are tubes of bronze and its limbs are like bars of iron. This creature also appears impervious to attack because his nose withstands barbs. Some commentators think this was a hippopotamus which makes me wonder if they have ever paid attention to a hippo's tail which is like a small but thickish twig.  In reality, no modern animal fulfills every point made in this description.

    (15) "Behold now, Behemoth, which I made as well as you; He eats grass like an ox.  (16)  "Behold now, his strength in his loins And his power in the muscles of his belly. (17) "He bends his tail like a cedar; The sinews of his thighs are knit together. (18) "His bones are tubes of bronze; His limbs are like bars of iron.  (19)  "He is the first of the ways of God; Let his maker bring near his sword.  (20)  "Surely the mountains bring him food, And all the beasts of the field play there.  (21)  "Under the lotus plants he lies down, In the covert of the reeds and the marsh. (22) "The lotus plants cover him with shade; The willows of the brook surround him. (23) "If a river rages, he is not alarmed; He is confident, though the Jordan rushes to his mouth.  (24)  "Can anyone capture him when he is on watch, With barbs can anyone pierce his nose? (Job 40:15-24 NASB)

3) Job's description of the leviathin (Job 41) very much resembles a dinosaur. Some would dismiss this description as fictitious because verse 21 says" a flame goes forth from his mouth". This is not necessarily science fiction - the animal would merely need the right glands to produce a chemical which would combust when exposed to air. In fact, a present day creature - the incredibly complex bombardier beetle has an amazing and unique ability -  when threatened it shoots boiling hot chemicals from its abdomen.. Besides which, the fact that nearly every major culture of the world has traditions about such fire-breathing dragons lends credibility to the possibility that they ay have actually existed sometime in the past.

The simultaneous existence of men and dinosaurs is violently opposed by secular science, and no wonder. It would turn many theories on their collective heads. Thus most of humankind has been brainwashed (courtesy of National Geographic, Time magazine, CNN and the Discovery channel) into believing that dinosaurs walked this Earth millions of years ago. While evolutionists continue to maintain that 'no man ever existed in the age of the reptiles', the evidence documents exactly the opposite. See Section Dragons and Dinosaurs on THIS Page.


What Happened to The Dinosaur?
Modern science, that has absolutely no clue as to why the dinosaur disappeared off the face of the earth, has come up with a dozen different possible scenarios including a few rather far out ones, except of course the one the Bible gives. It seems that is next to impossible for most modern sophisticates to ever concede that the Bible might - just might - be correct.

    "He is the first (Heb. rę'shîyth) of the ways of God; Let his maker bring near his sword.  (Job 40:19 NASB)

The Hebrew rę'shîyth means first in place, time, order or rank.  Note however that the word was used in Numbers 24:20 and Amos 6:1 to indicate that the people referred to were pre-eminent among the neighboring nations.

    And he looked at Amalek and took up his discourse and said, "Amalek was the first (Heb. rę'shîyth) of the nations, But his end shall be destruction."  (Numbers 24:20)

    Woe to those who are at ease in Zion And to those who feel secure in the mountain of Samaria, The distinguished men of the foremost (Heb. rę'shîyth) of nations, To whom the house of Israel comes. (Amos 6:1 NASB)

But, in both the above cases, the people concerned were judged for their self-indulgence, pride and arrogance and, were be cut off off by the sword, by captivity, or by famine. The Amalekites who were supposed to have been wiped off the face of the earth by Saul, were only finally exterminated by the sons of Simeon in king Hezekiah's time.

Similarly, God caused this, the largest and most powerful of all the creatures He had made, to become extinct.


Those Industrious Ants
(Proverbs 6:6-8 reads

    Go to the ant, O sluggard, Observe her ways and be wise, which, having no chief, officer or ruler, prepares her food in the summer and gathers her provision in the harvest. (Proverbs 6:6-8 NASB)

In Solomon's day (1000 B.C.) one has to doubt that anyone knew that ants actually eat large amounts of food in the fall to prepare for the winter when they enter a dormant stage, surviving on the fat stored by their bodies.


Could Noah's Ark Float?
Smithsoniancom.  carries an article entitled Could Noah’s Ark Float? In Theory, Yes! that says, in part, (Note, the Bible does not specify the precise shape of the ark)

    the Bible is clear on one thing: Noah got specific instructions for the ark's dimensions (300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high) and material ("gopher wood"). Gopher wood may refer to pine, cedar, or cypress wood.

    So, if one could hypothetically build an ark to the specifications outlined in the Bible, and actually cram two of every species on the boat, would it float or would Noah have found himself in a Titanic-like scenario? That's what four physics graduate students at the University of Leicester wondered. As part of a special course that encourages the students to apply basic physics principles to more general questions, the team did the math and found that an ark full of animals in those dimensions could theoretically float. [13]

Well my money is on God rather than four physics graduate students. Besides which (Note: I have absolutely no way of verifying the following),

    Noah's Ark was the focus of a major 1993 scientific study headed by Dr. Seon Hong at the world-class ship research center KRISO, based in Daejeon, South Korea (Dr. Hong was principal research scientist at the time) Dr. Hong's team compared twelve hulls of different proportions to discover which design was most practical. No hull shape was found to significantly outperform the 4,300-year-old biblical design. In fact, the Ark' careful balance is easily lost if the proportions are modified, rendering the vessel either unstable, prone to fracture, or dangerously uncomfortable.

    The research team found that the proportions of Noah's Ark carefully balanced the conflicting demands of stability (resistance to capsizing), comfort ("seakeeping"), and strength. In fact, the Ark has the same proportions as a modern cargo ship.

    The study also confirmed that the Ark could handle waves as high as 100 ft (30 m). Dr. Hong is now director general of the facility and claims “life came from the sea,” obviously not the words of a creationist on a mission to promote the worldwide Flood. Endorsing the seaworthiness of Noah’s Ark obviously did not damage Dr. Hong’s credibility. [14]
     

Man

Adam And Eve:
The Genesis account of creation asserts that all humans descended from the same parents, Adam and Eve. There is now considerable debate in the scientific community over recent genetic studies which indicate that

    A maternal ancestor to all living humans called mitochondrial Eve likely lived about 200,000 years ago, at roughly the same time anatomically modern humans are believed to have emerged, a new review study confirms.

    The results are based on analyses of mitochondrial DNA. Found in the energy-producing centers of cells, mitochondrial DNA is only passed down the maternal line, and can be traced back to one woman.

However, the article also goes on to say that

    "this doesn't mean she was the first modern woman, rather it indicates that only her descendants survive to the present day".  [15]

I have to wonder on what basis they hypothesize that there were other women whose descendants didn't survive.


Life is in the Blood:
Leviticus 17:11, written 3,000 years ago, declared that blood is the source of life:

    "For the life of the flesh is in the blood."

From from antiquity right up to the late 19th century, bloodletting or the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient to cure or prevent illness was a extremely common medical practice performed by doctors. Only in the very recent past have we learned that not only is bloodletting ineffective for most diseases, it was extremely harmful to patients in the overwhelming majority of cases. If not replenished quickly enough a substantial loss of blood means the person has little of no chance of surviving.

In fact, a rather important patient Charles II (1630–1685) dies because they foolishly removed about 24 ounces of blood. And according to the British Columbia Medical Journal,

    George Washington (1732–1799) developed a fever and respiratory distress. Under the care of his three physicians he had copious amounts of blood drawn, blisterings, emetics, and laxatives. He died the next night of what has been diagnosed retrospectively as epiglottitis and shock. His medical treatment aroused significant controversy, particularly the bloodletting. [16]


Blood Clotting in Infants:
The Bible consistently says that a baby must be circumcised on the eighth day. For example, in Genesis 17:12 God specifically directed Abraham to circumcise newborn males on the eighth day. This gives rise to the obvious question - why the eighth day?

Prothrombin is a plasma protein that, the name indicates, it is the precursor of thrombin, which facilitates the clotting of blood. It is produced in the liver in the presence of vitamin K. If vitamin K is deficient, there will be a prothrombin deficiency and hemorrhaging may occur.

    Vitamin K deficiency exists when chronic failure to eat sufficient amounts of vitamin K . However, it also occurs ii people treated with certain antibiotics, as well as  in newborn infants. [17]

Since Vitamin K is not readily carried through the placenta, babies are born with very small amounts which can lead to decreased clotting ability of the blood, and leave the newborn more susceptible to hemorrhage. Vitamin K must either be acquired from dietary sources, or as a by-products of intestinal bacteria, therefore most of the Vitamin K needed by the baby is obtained through a slow build up of their gut bacteria after they are born.

Apologetics Press quotes Holt and McIntosh in their classic work, Holt Pediatrics, which...

    observed that a newborn infant has "peculiar susceptibility to bleeding between the second and fifth days of life.... Hemorrhages at this time, though often inconsequential, are sometimes extensive; they may produce serious damage to internal organs, especially to the brain, and cause death from shock and exsanguination" (1953, pp. 125-126). Obviously, then, if vitamin K is not produced in sufficient quantities until days five through seven, it would be wise to postpone any surgery until some time after that. [18]

Which is sufficient reason to wait for a week before circumcision and, in itself, testimony to the accuracy of the Bible, since "prothrombin" and "Vitamin K" would have been Latin and Greek to the people of the time.

Note: In most countries infants are given a vitamin K injection shortly after birth.. This is widely contested by doctors like Dr. Mercola who claim that oral vitamin K is far better for the infant. 


A Merry Heart
Proverbs 17:22 reads

    A joyful heart is good medicine, but a broken spirit dries up the bones.  (Proverbs 17:22 NASB)

Centuries later the Mayo clinic writes [19]

    A good sense of humor can't cure all ailments, but data is mounting about the positive things laughter can do.

    A good laugh has great short-term effects. When you start to laugh, it doesn't just lighten your load mentally, it actually induces physical changes in your body. Laughter can:

    • Stimulate many organs. Laughter enhances your intake of oxygen-rich air, stimulates your heart, lungs and muscles, and increases the endorphins that are released by your brain.

    • Activate and relieve your stress response. A rollicking laugh fires up and then cools down your stress response, and it can increase your heart rate and blood pressure. The result? A good, relaxed feeling.

    • Soothe tension. Laughter can also stimulate circulation and aid muscle relaxation, both of which can help reduce some of the physical symptoms of stress.

That is certainly pretty good medicine. 
 

Medical Knowledge in Ancient Times

Moses vs. The Egyptians
Acts 7:22 tells us that "Moses was educated in all the learning of the Egyptians, and he was a man of power in words and deeds. In view of which we need to examine some Egyptian medical/magical practices. Note: There were less outrageous ones.

The Ebers papyrus is Egyptian compilation of medical texts dated about 1550 bc, one of the oldest known medical works. The scroll contains 700 magical formulas and folk remedies meant to cure afflictions ranging from crocodile bite to toenail pain and to rid the house of such pests as flies, rats, and scorpions. There is no question that it includes

    .. a surprisingly accurate description of the circulatory system, noting the existence of blood vessels throughout the body and the hearts function as centre of the blood supply. [20]

On the other hand, most of the remedies were quite outrageous. For example "a mixture of the seeds of the plant Sheben with some fly-dirt" was said to "prevent the immoderate crying of children". Hair could be prevented from greying by anointing it with "the blood of a black calf which has been boiled in oil; or with the fat of a rattlesnake" or strengthened  with an application of  "the tooth of a donkey crushed in honey".  Falling hair was combated with "a mixture of six fats, namely those of the horse, the hippopotamus, the crocodile, the cat, the snake, and the ibex". [21] And so on and so forth.

From other sources

    The grave of several small children revealed that they had eaten skinned mice just prior to their deaths. The Egyptians believed that the life-giving Nile created mice because these animals emerged from cracks in the mud after the Nile receded each year." [22]

Additionally one cannot be sure how often they washed because there were a number of remedies for body odor. According to the Hearst Papyrus  dating to the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, one could "Drive the odor of sweat from the body of a person in summer with a mixture of "Incense, lettuce, fruit of the n-plant, myrrh" rubbed on the patient. [23]

Yet the first five books of the Bible, written by Moses approximately 1491-1451 B.C. demonstrates absolutely no scientific ignorance. In fact, the law of Moses reveals advanced knowledge about hygiene, quarantine and sanitation - far surpassing that possessed by the Egyptians and other ancient societies..

Additionally, the practices commanded in the Torah far exceeded medical standards practiced as recently as 100 or so years ago. While we certainly learned to avoid skinned mice or the fat of an ibex, our medical knowledge was abysmal right up to the beginning of the twentieth century.


Sanitary Practices in The 19th Century
It was not until the 20th century that medical science fully understood that most diseases are caused by microscopic organisms - germs and bacteria to you and me. Sterilization, sanitation, and quarantines were virtually unheard of. Please note that the following took place in the 19th century.

In the 1840s, puerperal or childbirth fever, a bacterial infection of the female genital tract after childbirth, was taking the lives of up to 30% of women who gave birth in hospitals. Women who gave birth at home remained relatively unaffected.

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), a Hungarian obstetrician educated at the universities of Pest and Vienna was an assistant professor on the maternity ward of the Vienna General Hospital. He observed that women examined by student doctors who had not washed their hands after leaving the autopsy room had very high death rates. When a colleague who had received a scalpel cut died of infection, Semmelweis concluded that puerperal fever was septic and contagious and that he and the medical students carried "cadaverous particles" on their hands.

He ordered students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime before examining patients; as a result, the maternal death rate was reduced from 12% to 1% in 2 years. Nevertheless, Semmelweis encountered strong opposition from hospital officials as some doctors were offended at the suggestion that they should wash their hands; they felt that their social status as gentlemen was inconsistent with the idea that their hands could be unclean.

Semmelweis' practice earned widespread acceptance only years after his death, when Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease, offering a theoretical explanation for Semmelweis' findings and managed to convince most of Europe it was true.

 Yet these core principles of sanitation were being practiced by the Israelites thousands of years earlier.

Sanitary Practices in Moses' Time
"The Israelites were instructed to wash themselves and their clothes in running water if they had a bodily discharge, if they came in contact with another person's discharge, or if they had touched a dead human or animal carcass. They were also instructed to wash any uncovered vessels that were in the vicinity of a dead body, and if a dead carcass touched an earthenware vessel it was to be destroyed. Items recovered during war were also to be purified through either fire or running water. In addition, the Israelites were instructed to bury their human waste outside of camp, and to burn the waste of their animals. (See Numbers 19, Leviticus 11 and 15, Deuteronomy 23:12).

    'This is the law when a man dies in a tent: everyone who comes into the tent and everyone who is in the tent shall be unclean for seven days. 'Every open vessel, which has no covering tied down on it, shall be unclean. 'Also, anyone who in the open field touches one who has been slain with a sword or who has died naturally, or a human bone or a grave, shall be unclean for seven days. (Numbers 19:14-16 NASB)

    "You shall also have a place outside the camp and go out there, and you shall have a spade among your tools, and it shall be when you sit down outside, you shall dig with it and shall turn to cover up your excrement. (Deuteronomy 23:12-13 NASB)

    (Speaking of burned offerings) 'Anyone who touches its flesh will become consecrated; and when any of its blood splashes on a garment, in a holy place you shall wash what was splashed on. 'Also the earthenware vessel in which it was boiled shall be broken; and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then it shall be scoured and rinsed in water. (Leviticus 6:27-28 NASB)

The last is a clear commandment to discard used pottery that may be contaminated with bacteria while metal pots should be disinfected by scouring and rinsing in water.

Until recent years, doctors washed their hands in a bowl of water, leaving invisible germs on their hands. However, the Bible specifically says to wash hands under "running water".

    'Now when the man with the discharge becomes cleansed from his discharge, then he shall count off for himself seven days for his cleansing; he shall then wash his clothes and bathe his body in running water and will become clean. (Leviticus 15:13 NASB)

So where did Moses get this advanced information?

 
The Romans and The Minoans:
I have read the arguments that even in ancient times people knew about and often implemented good sanitation practices. The civilizations most often referenced being the Minoans and the Romans.. with particular emphasis on the ancient city of Pompeii. [See Footnote For Details]


Leprosy and Plague:
Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is an age-old disease, described in the literature of several ancient civilizations. Few diseases have provoked more stigma and generated more fear than leprosy because, if left untreated, it results in terrible skin sores, nerve damage, and disfigured limbs. Most patients were ostracized by their communities and families to special leper's colonies.

 However, we cannot be sure that when the Bible speaks of "leprosy", it is referring to Hansen's disease or some other infectious disease or diseases.

However, what is interesting is that Leviticus 13 and 14 mention the 'marks' of leprosy on walls and on garments and the priests were instructed to burn the garments of leprosy victims! (Leviticus 13:52), which many thought was quite silly. However M. leprae is a hardy organism and can survive outside the body for up to 45 days. A paper published in the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene says the following [Emphasis Added]

    Both nasal secretions and skin from untreated MB cases of leprosy are capable of shedding M. leprae to the environment, which may be deposited on either or both the nasal and skin epithelia of contacts with the potential for initiating infection. [24] 

Which is why there are very strict commands in the Bible about how to deal with leprosy (and other infectious diseases?). In fact, these laws include quarantining the patient (Leviticus 13) something that was unheard of at the time.

    "As for the leper who has the infection, his clothes shall be torn, and the hair of his head shall be uncovered, and he shall cover his mustache and cry, 'Unclean! Unclean!' "He shall remain unclean all the days during which he has the infection; he is unclean. He shall live alone; his dwelling shall be outside the camp. (Leviticus 13:45-46 NASB)

During the devastating Black Death of the fourteenth century, because people knew nothing about how infectious diseases were spread, patients stayed  in the same rooms as the rest of the family. The quick and easy spread of that and various other epidemics was attributed to 'bad air' or 'evil spirits'.

Sadly, reading and heeding God's quarantine commands in Leviticus would have spared many people much suffering and saved very many lives.


Old Testament Dietary Guidelines


Pork and its Connection with Various Diseases
Leviticus 11:7-8 talks about eating pork, saying that although the pig "divides the hoof, thus making a split hoof, it does not chew cud, it is unclean to you. 'You shall not eat of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you".

Now, centuries later we are beginning to discover that the consumption of pork can cause significant health problems. According to the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (Emphasis Added) Liver specialists, Drs. Amin A. Nanji and Samuel W. French found

    The correlation between cirrhosis mortality and the product of both alcohol and pork consumption was highly significant (r = 0.98, p less than 0.001). In countries with low alcohol consumption, no correlation was obtained between alcohol consumption and cirrhosis. However, a significant correlation was obtained between cirrhosis and pork. A similar relationship was seen in the ten Canadian provinces, where there was no correlation between cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption, but a significant correlation was obtained with pork. [25]

And that is not all. There are remarkably strong correlations between pork consumption and liver disease, liver cancer, and multiple sclerosis.

    MS: A significant correlation was obtained between prevalence of multiple sclerosis and ... pork consumption (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). There was no significant correlation with beef consumption

    Primary Liver Cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): The correlation between HCC and alcohol was 0.40 (p < 0.05); that with pork consumption was also 0.40 (p < 0.05). There was no correlation with total fat meat, beef, and cigarette and tobacco consumption.

    Liver Cirrhosis: Pork consumption has a strong epidemiological association with cirrhosis of the liver. Startlingly, pork may be even more strongly associated with alcoholic cirrhosis than alcohol itself! [26]

Pork and Hepatitis E: Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by infection with a virus known as hepatitis E virus (HEV). Every year, there are an estimated 20 million HEV infections worldwide, leading to an estimated 3.3 million symptomatic cases of hepatitis E. WHO estimates that hepatitis E caused approximately 44,000 deaths in 2015 (accounting for 3.3% of the mortality due to viral hepatitis). [27]

According to the European Food Safety Authority (Emphasis Added)

    Domestic pigs are the main carriers of hepatitis E in the EU. Wild boars can also carry the virus, but meat from these animals is less commonly consumed. [28]

So how can we not come to the conclusion that the primary reason pork was prohibited was to protect the Israelites from diseases.. Unfortunately modern Christians have decided that all Old Testaments commandments came to a complete end 2000 years ago. This is far from the truth and nothing whatsoever has changed. We are still susceptible to the same diseases and would be fools not to pay attention to what the God of the Universe instructed us what to do and what not to do..

    Also See Jesus and the Law The Bible contains both Old and New Testaments each with seemingly different teachings and commands. This has led to more than a little confusion for Christians who often struggle with the tension between the Old Testament emphasis on regulations, and the New Testament emphasis on grace. Because they have not grasped the seamless relationship between the two parts of the Scriptures, they are far from clear as to what our relationship to the Old Testament should be, especially when it comes to the many laws including the Ten Commandments, the Sabbath etc.


Shellfish

Leviticus 11:9-12 adds

    'These you may eat, whatever is in the water: all that have fins and scales, those in the water, in the seas or in the rivers, you may eat. 'But whatever is in the seas and in the rivers that does not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures that are in the water, they are detestable things to you, and they shall be abhorrent to you; you may not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses you shall detest. 'Whatever in the water does not have fins and scales is abhorrent to you. (NASB)

In other words, Scripture commands us to avoid those sea creatures which do not have fins or scales. We now know that bottom-feeders tend to consume waste and are more likely to carry disease. According to the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP)

    Shellfish accumulate and concentrate bacteria and virus to levels in their bodies much higher than in the surrounding water. They also collect and assimilate metallic and organic compounds. [29]

The Washington State Department of Health says

    Norovirus is a virus that can survive in marine water for long periods of time, and causes a highly contagious illness commonly referred to as viral gastroenteritis, stomach flu, and food poisoning.  Shellfish such as oysters, clams, and mussels are filter feeders and ingest norovirus if it is present in the water. Through filter feeding, oysters may concentrate the virus to much higher levels than might be found in the surrounding water. [30]

And the American Society for Microbiology states that

    Seafood harvested from sewage-contaminated waters has caused outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis. Large outbreaks have been associated with consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish, such as a series of oyster- and clam-associated outbreaks in which northeastern coastal waters were implicated. Shellfish, particularly bivalve mollusks that are filter feeders, can accumulate large numbers of viruses. [31]

This makes it all the more significant that the Israelites were instructed to bury their excrement in the ground at a distance from their camp. However, then as now, the waters could have been contaminated by sewage, albeit in smaller quantities than it is now.

When consuming shellfish we, for the most part, have absolutely no idea of where they came from and how polluted the waters are.. 


The End Times

Ancient Descriptions of a Nuclear Explosion
Since Ernest Rutherford (1908 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry) is credited with splitting the atom only in 1917, it is quite impossible for people in the first century, to have known anything about the Atom Bomb. However, they certainly described it well, speaking about the sky burning up and the earth itself melting. The Old Testament prophet Zechariah also gave us a chilling message...

    Now this will be the plague with which the Lord will strike all the peoples who have gone to war against Jerusalem; their flesh will rot while they stand on their feet, and their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongue will rot in their mouth.  (Zechariah 14:12 NASB)

 Peter certainly believed this to be true, warning people about this phenomena in a verse quite startling in its clarity.

    But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up. Since all these things are to be destroyed in this way, what sort of people ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt with intense heat! (2 Peter 3:10-12 NASB)

And the Apostle John described the sun becoming black as sack cloth and the moon becoming like blood that pretty much describes the phenomena that would result from massive amounts of dust and debris blown into the sky by nuclear bursts.

    I looked when He broke the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became like blood;  (Revelation 6:12 NASB)

John went on to say....

    The sky was split apart like a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.  (Revelation 6:14 NASB)

In a nuclear explosion the atmosphere rolls back on itself. This tremendous rush of air back into the vacuum causes much of the destruction. John's words in this verse are a perfect picture of a nuclear exchange... The whole world will be literally shaken apart!

John did not use terms like "nuclear weapons, ICBM's, or fractional orbital bombs. He lived in the first century AD and in describing things he had no knowledge of used only terms that were familiar to him. Thus his description included the terms "hail and fire," "a great mountain burning with fire," and "a great star... burning like a torch."

Could it be that what John was really witnessing in the Spirit, was an end of the age nuclear holocaust? The effects he describes certainly seem to bear this out.

    The poisoning of the waters (Revelation 8:11), the severe reduction in visibility (Revelation 8:12), the death of much of the earth's vegetation (Revelation 8:7), malignant sores (Revelation 16:2), the end of ocean life (Revelation 16:3), and the inability of the atmosphere to block out harmful ultraviolet rays, resulting in severe burns (Revelation 16:8) are all expected results of nuclear war.

However, please note that I am not saying that the world will necessarily end in a nuclear holocaust. In fact there are three possible sources of the kind of devastation portrayed above. [32] See The End of The Age


The Second Coming Takes Place in The Day AND Night:
Both Matthew and Luke recorded Jesus' statements about how no one knows when He will return to earth.

    Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. "Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left. (Matthew 24:40-41 NASB)

    "I tell you, on that night there will be two in one bed; one will be taken and the other will be left. "There will be two women grinding at the same place; one will be taken and the other will be left. ["Two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other will be left."] (Luke 17:34-36 NASB)

However, what is interesting about the statements is that some people will be in bed (obviously at night), while others will be grinding grain or tending their fields which is done in the day time.

No sensible explanation of this seeming contradiction was forthcoming until hundreds of years later. But in the light of what we know today about the earth's constant revolution, we understand how at any given time it is day on one side of the earth, while it is yet night on the other

Note: The statements above about the women grinding at the mill and the men in the field etc. refers to the reaping of the earth, when Christ 'cuts', or makes the distinction between the good crop and the weeds The angels then gather and bind the tares, then collect the elect from one end of the heaven to the other. See The End Of The Age Part IV... The Seventh Trumpet - Summary of Events At The Seventh Trumpet

 

Foot Note
The Minoan Civilization.... a peaceful trade civilization which arose on the island of Crete, and lasted from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC, and widely considered to be the foundation of European civilization.

The Minoan Palace of Knossos on the isle of Crete featured four separate drainage systems that emptied into the great sewers constructed of stone. Terra cotta pipe was laid beneath the palace floor, hidden from view... It provided water for fountains and faucets of marble, gold and silver that jetted hot and cold running water. Harbored in the palace latrine was the world's first flushing "water closet" or toilet, with a wooden seat and a small reservoir of water. The device, however, was lost for thousands of years amid the rubble of flood and decay. [33]

However it has to be noted that these discoveries were made in the Palace of Knossos built gradually between 1700 and 1400 BC. If they had the ability to build a palace with frescoes, a throne room, and aqueducts that brought fresh water from springs about 10 km away, why wouldn't they be able to fashion a toilet (a seat over drain flushed by pouring water from a jug).

While I understand that the subject being discussed is ancient sanitary practices, I can not resist the urge to bring up one other aspect of the very same society..

    Evidence that suggest the Minoans may have performed human sacrifice has been found at three sites: including a young man, was found in an unusually contracted position on a raised platform, suggesting that he had been trussed up for sacrifice... the discoloration of the bones on one side of his body suggests he died of blood loss. In another location, fragments of a human skull were found in the same room as a small hearth, cooking-hole, and cooking-equipment. In the "North House" at Knossos, the bones of at least four children (who seemed to have been in good health) bore signs that "they were butchered in the same way the Minoans slaughtered their sheep and goats, suggesting that they had been sacrificed and eaten. [34]


Pompeii
The ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples was destroyed, and completely buried, during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in AD 79. Excavations reveal not only a large forum in the center of the city, but public baths, a small theater, a large theater, temples, grand villas and 33 bakeries..

    "Water closets were in vogue in Pompeii, and archaeologists have found ancient closets in the back of one palace, including a cistern to flush water to the different seats. Near the palace kitchen they also found an arched recess approximately three feet deep. Although the actual wood had long disappeared, archaeologists say they could still see outlines of hinges for the privy seats." [35]

Note however that while these snapshots of Roman life in the 1st century show a method of disposing of waste it also depicted an abysmal lack of any form of separation of food and waste.

    "The kitchen's brick oven sat four feet from the privy. To the efficient Romans who had no inkling of germs, the proximity allowed the easy disposal of both scraps and excrete." [36]

The Israelites, who did not live in palaces or towns, but in tents in the desert still had a better system in which their excrement was kept far away from their food.


The Romans
Again while it is true that bathing was very important to the Romans and they built numerous public bathhouses in the cities and towns throughout the empire which operated like community centers, there is another aspect to these famous baths..

At first, the Roman baths opened only during the daylight hours, which allowed for the emptying and refilling of the water at least once a day. This helped matters somewhat, in that hundreds would use the same pools of stagnant, germ-ridden, unfiltered, fetid water. The dawn of scientific discovery would not be for hundreds more years. Even the best and brightest of the ancient Romans knew nothing about bacteria and the true causes of disease. [37]


Verses Wrongly Taken as Proof of Scientific Knowledge 

The Treasures of The Snow:
As recorded in the book of Job (written some 3,500 years ago), God asked Job if he had entered into the treasures of the snow? (Job 38:22 KJV)

Many Christians take this to mean the ice molecules of each snowflake form a unique and usually beautifully symmetrical pattern that can only be seen under a microscope.

 However, the Hebrew word that the KJV translates as 'treasures' can also mean a depository, treasury, storehouse etc. And in view of the fact that  God then asks Job whether he has also seen the hail that He (God) has reserved for the time of distress etc. it is more than likely that the word does mean storehouse of some kind - not a treasure.

    "Have you entered the storehouses (Heb. đtsâr)of the snow, Or have you seen the storehouses (Heb. đtsâr) of the hail, Which I have reserved for the time of distress, For the day of war and battle? (Job 38:22-23 NASB)

Seed of a Woman?
Many Christian apologetic sites use Genesis 3:15 as one more thread of evidence for the scientific accuracy of the Scriptures. The verse says

    And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel." (Genesis 3:15 NASB)

They rightly state that until a few centuries ago, it was widely believed that only the male had the seed of life, and the woman was nothing more than a 'glorified incubator'. No one understood that it was the woman who possessed the 'seed of life' - or ovum (in more technical terms).

However, this is not the meaning of 'seed' in Genesis, translated from the Hebrew zera. The word can mean a literal seed (as in grain or fruit.. Genesis 47:23), and can also refer to male sperm (Genesis 19:32. Note the KJV says "seed of our father "). However, when used in connection with humans, zera usually means descendant or offspring, and has often been translated accordingly.

    As God told Abraham... "And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you;"  (Genesis 9:9 KJV)

    I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live: (Deuteronomy 30:19 KJV)

The use of zera in Genesis 3:15 simply refers to Eve's descendant, Jesus Christ, who would eventually bruise Satan on the head. Also to be noted is that God said this to Eve alone, simply because Jesus had a human mother, but no man could claim to be his father. Mary was a virgin conceived by the Spirit of God.

Singing Stars?
Job 38:7 says "When the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?" 

Six months after scientists at Sheffield University recorded "eerie musical harmonies" emitted from the surface of the sun, they discovered that as  Dr Bill Chaplin, an asteroseismologist at Birmingham University, said, (asteroseismology is The study of the internal structure of stars through the interpretation of their pulsation periods.)

    "Essentially stars resonate like a huge musical instrument. Stars make sounds naturally but we can't hear this as it is has to travel through space. [38]

While the discovery of singing stars is very interesting, we have to ask whether the Bible was referring to planetary stars when it said "morning stars". It wasn't.

Note the following explanation is very condensed See link below for more detail.

The Biblical term "Sons of Elohim" (son of the Creator Himself), is only used of someone who is born of a specific divine act of creation. Referring to a time when God laid the foundations of the world long before man was created, Job 1:6 and Job 2:1 tell us that Satan was among the Bene HaElohim who came to present themselves before the Lord, which makes it certain that the sons of God were angelic beings. [39]

    Now there was a day when the sons of God (Heb. Bene HaElohim) came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them.  (Job 1:6 NASB)

    Again there was a day when the sons of God (Heb. Bene HaElohim)  came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them to present himself before the Lord. (Job 2:1 NASB)

However, are 'morning stars' and 'sons of God" one and the same thing? Ellen White - Seventh Day Adventist prophetess actually claimed that this verse provided evidence that worlds other than ours exist. See Unfallen Worlds

But if you look closely at the verses surrounding Job 38:7, you will see that each verse has a parallel format. In other words, both parts of each verse say exactly the same thing.

 


End Notes (Unless otherwise mentioned all URL's were accessed November 2017) Please note that there are some references simply marked as [DP] These refer to an article on scientific knowledge in the Bible written by David Pyles. The articles seems to have disappeared from the internet.

[13] Could Noah’s Ark Float? In Theory, Yes! Smithsoniancom.
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/could-noahs-ark-float-theory-yes-180950385/#GBdiE68FFpZw2vFz.99

[14] Tim Lovett. Thinking Outside the Box. Answers in Genesis https://answersingenesis.org/noahs-ark/thinking-outside-the-box/#study

[15] Wynne Parry. Age Confirmed for 'Eve,' Mother of All Humans..
https://www.livescience.com/10015-age-confirmed-eve-mother-humans.html

[16] Gerry Greenstone, MD. The history of bloodletting. Issue: BCMJ, Vol. 52, No. 1, January, February 2010, page(s) 12-14 Premise. http://www.bcmj.org/premise/history-bloodletting#6

[17] Vitamin K Deficiency. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/vitamin+K+deficiency

[18] Bert Thompson, Ph.D. Biblical Accuracy and Circumcision on the 8th Day.
http://www.apologeticspress.org/APContent.aspx?category=13&article=1118

[19] Stress management.. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress-relief/art-20044456

[20] Ebers papyrus. Written by the editors of the Encyclopćdia Britannica. Encyclopćdia Britannica, Inc.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ebers-papyrus

[21] S.E. Massengill. A Sketch of Medicine and Pharmacy..
http://www.archive.org/stream/sketchofmedicine00massuoft/sketchofmedicine00massuoft_djvu.txt

[22] Robert (Bob) M. Brier and Hoyt Hobbs. Daily life of the ancient Egyptians Revised Edition. Publisher: Greenwood; Revised edition (September 30, 2008) Pg. 280

[23] Joshua J. Mark. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: Study & Practice.
https://www.ancient.eu/article/50/ancient-egyptian-medicine-study--practice/

[24] Transmission of Leprosy: A Study of Skin and Nasal Secretions of Household Contacts of Leprosy Patients Using PCR. Charles K. Job, Joseph Jayakumar, Michael Kearney, AND Thomas P. Gillis. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/full/78/3/518

[25] NCBI. Relationship between pork consumption and cirrhosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2858627

[26] Paul & Shou-Ching Jaminet .. Is Pork Still Dangerous? Did Leviticus get it right? Pork may still be dangerous. Posted Feb 08, 2012.. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/perfect-health-diet/201202/is-pork-still-dangerous

[27] World Health Organization. Hepatitis E. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs280/en/

[28] Hepatitis E: raw pork is main cause of infection in EU.. European Food Safety Authority.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/170711

[29] United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) https://goo.gl/YKZvKa

[30] Washington State Department of Health.
https://www.doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/Shellfish/RecreationalShellfish/Illnesses/Norovirus

[31] Martha Iwamoto, Tracy Ayers, Barbara E. Mahon and David L. Swerdlow. Epidemiology of Seafood-Associated Infections in the United States. http://cmr.asm.org/content/23/2/399.full

[32] Excerpted and adapted from Nuclear Weapons in the End Times.... Does the Bible predict a nuclear holocaust? by Dr. David R. Reagan. http://www.lamblion.com/articles/articles_issues12.php

[33] The History of Plumbing - Roman and English Legacy. http://www.theplumber.com/eng.html

[34] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_civilization#Possibility_of_human_sacrifice

[35] The History of Plumbing - Pompeii & Herculaneum. http://www.theplumber.com/pom.html

[36] ibid..

[37] The History of Plumbing - Roman and English Legacy. http://www.theplumber.com/eng.html

[38] Richard Gray, Science Correspondent. Star's song captured by scientists. 07 Nov 2010.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/8114694/Stars-song-captured-by-scientists.html

[39] The Hebrew - English interlinear Bible. http://biblehub.com/interlinear/job/1-6.htm

Part I

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