According to a ‘website created by Christians who practice Reiki’..
“As the popularity of Reiki grows, many Christians are becoming interested in this healing art and have begun to practice it. They have found that Reiki is a useful technique that helps them express compassion toward others and relieve suffering at the same time that it creates a closer connection for them to God. Because Reiki is a laying on hands healing technique similar to what Jesus practiced, it is especially appealing. [http://www.christianreiki.org/]
And in answer to the question “What is Reiki?”, they say
Reiki is a method of stress reduction and relaxation that also promotes healing. The technique was developed in Japan and is administered by the laying on of hands. It is based on the idea that all living things have a special energy flowing through them called life energy. When your life energy is high, you'll feel strong and confident, be more relaxed and centered and less likely to get sick. When it is low, you'll often feel tired, be more easily affected by stress and less resistant to illness. [http://www.christianreiki.org/info/WhatisReiki.htm]
The Basic Philosophy Of Reiki
A U.S. News & World Report dated February 25, 2008 says the following [All Emphasis Added]
The basic idea of reiki is that the body has an energy field that is central to its health and proper functioning, and this energy travels in certain pathways that can become blocked or weakened. This idea of energy flow in the body is also a central concept in Ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, including acupuncture.
Reiki practitioners believe that everyone has the potential to access the universal life energy, but that over time most people's systems become blocked and the energy becomes weakened in them. A reiki practitioner is trained to be able to detect these blockages, and practitioners will use their hands, thoughts, and own energy fields to improve the energy flow in a patient. Reiki is one of the more esoteric alternative medical practices, because no one is sure exactly how it works on the physiological level. Practitioners claim that it works on very subtle energy levels, or possibly works on the chakra system. The chakras are the system of seven energy centers along the middle of the body believed to be connected with the nervous and endocrine systems, as defined by yoga and Ayurvedic medicine. Reiki masters claim that healing energy can even be sent to a person from far away, noting that reiki works on the same principles that enables praying to work for some patients, although a practitioner needs advanced training to be able to send energy from afar.
According to the original principles of Usui, patients must also have a proper attitude for reiki to work most effectively. Patients must take responsibility for their own health, and must want to be healed. Furthermore, when energy is received from a reiki healer, patients must be willing to give back energy to others, and to compensate the healer in some way, as well. Finally, Usui claimed that a healing attitude was free from worry and fear, was filled with gratitude for life and for others, and placed emphasis on each person finding honest and meaningful work in their lives—all this, in order to complete the picture of overall health.
A Reiki session
Reiki sessions can take various forms, but most commonly resemble typical bodywork appointments, where the receiver lies clothed on his or her back on a flat surface or massage table. A session generally lasts from an hour to an hour and a half. Reiki is a simple procedure, consisting of calm and concentrated touching, with the practitioner focusing on healing and giving energy to specific areas on the receiver's body. Practitioners place their hands over positions on the body where the organs and endocrine glands reside, and the areas that correspond to the chakra centers. Practitioners also use mental visualization to send healing energy to areas of the receiver's body that need it. In special cases or with injuries, a no-touch technique is used, where the practitioner's hands are sometimes held just above the body without touching it. Advanced practitioners rely on intuition and experience to determine which areas of a body need the most energy healing….
… The practitioner's hands are held in each position for a usually five minutes, to allow the transfer of energy and the healing process to take place. In each position, the hands are kept stationary, unlike typical massage where the hands move, and both the giver and receiver attempt to maintain an attitude of awareness, openness, and caring. [http://usnews.healthline.com/galecontent/reiki]
A second article states
Practitioners of Reiki healing have reported instances of patients feeling tingling sensations, "spaciness," an "out of body" sensation, sudden warmth, or similar experiences. As a rule, people in treatment for any mental condition or disorder should consult their therapist before beginning any form of energy treatment. [http://usnews.healthline.com/galecontent/energy-therapies
All of which should raise a few red flags and open the door to a host of questions that all Christians should be asking... HOW does it work? What’s with the Chakra bit? Mental Visualization? Etc. Etc. The answer to some of those questions is provided in a chilling definition by www.reiki.org [All Emphasis Added]..
The word Reiki is composed of two Japanese words - Rei and Ki. When translating Japanese into English we must keep in mind that an exact translation is difficult. The Japanese language has many levels of meaning. Therefore the context the word is being used in must be kept in mind when attempting to communicate its essence. Because these words are used in a spiritual healing context, a Japanese/English dictionary does not provide the depth of meaning we seek, as its definitions are based on common everyday Japanese. As an example, Rei is often defined as ghost and Ki as vapor and while these words vaguely point in the direction of meaning we seek, they fall far short of the understanding that is needed.
When seeking a definition from a more spiritual context, we find that Rei can be defined as the Higher Intelligence that guides the creation and functioning of the universe. Rei is a subtle wisdom that permeates everything, both animate and inanimate. This subtle wisdom guides the evolution of all creation ranging from the unfolding of galaxies to the development of life. On a human level, it is available to help us in times of need and to act as a source of guidance in our lives. Because of its infinite nature, it is all knowing. Rei is also called God and has many other names depending on the culture that has named it.
Ki is the non-physical energy that animates all living things. Ki is flowing in everything that is alive including plants, animals and humans….With the above information in mind, Reiki can be defined as a non-physical healing energy made up of life force energy that is guided by the Higher Intelligence, or spiritually guided life force energy. This is a functional definition as it closely parallels the experience of those who practice Reiki in that Reiki energy seems to have an intelligence of its own flowing where it is needed in the client and creating the healing conditions necessary for the individuals needs. It cannot be guided by the mind, therefore it is not limited by the experience or ability of the practitioner [http://www.reiki.org/reikinews/whatislg.html]
Christian organizations and churches are embracing Reiki just as they are embracing other mystical practices such as contemplative prayer, without realizing that this "Higher Intelligence" is NOT the God of the Bible! Most people, many Christians included, believe if something is spiritually positive then it is of God." [Ray Yungen Lighthouse Trails]
A Christian Perspective
Michael Gleghorn of Probe Ministries says the following [All Emphasis Added]
In a book entitled Basic Questions on Alternative Medicine, a corporate project by members of the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications, 1988), there is a short chapter on Reiki (pp. 61-63). I will draw some information from that chapter. Although Reiki claims to be an "ancient healing practice that Buddha (and Jesus) used," all records of it were lost. It was allegedly rediscovered by Mikao Usui, a Zen Buddhist monk, in the mid-1800s "during a psychic experience." Additionally, it is claimed that details about lost aspects of the practice have "been revealed through channeling." Channeling is the New Age term for mediumship and involves contact with, and usually possession by, "spirit guides." The authors of this chapter state that a second-degree Reiki practitioner "learns about spirit guides and how to contact and use them in healing sessions." They further state that third degree Reiki masters give "complete control of healing sessions to their spirit guides." Healing sessions appear to be based on the use of "life-energy" (i.e. ki, chi, or prana), which is sent from the practitioner into the patient's body.
The greatest concern would seem to be the identity of the "spirit guides." Since they are typically contacted in ways expressly forbidden in Scripture, and since they advocate unbiblical ideas and practices, it is honestly quite difficult to view them as anything other than the biblical demons. The authors of this chapter conclude by stating: "Reiki is antithetical to biblical Christianity. Channeling is a way of communicating with spirits to obtain information not otherwise accessible. It is denounced in the Bible as sorcery, mediumship, and spiritism (Lev. 19:26, 31; 20:6; Deut. 18:9-14...)." [Michael Gleghorn Probe Ministries. What is a Christian Perspective on Reiki?"]
Reiki - The New Phase Sweeping S.A.
Reaching Out Ministries
It's advertised in our local newspapers, it's on the internet, it's promoted in our Metro magazines and winning a session of this `healing phenomenon' is now the in-thing. No longer reserved for the `elite', Reiki is becoming more popular and well known, but what exactly is it?
Well firstly I'll tell you what it isn't - Reiki is not a doctrine or religion, so all different types of people enjoy it. It is, however, a form of spirituality (as stated by a local Reiki Master). Reiki can best be described as a spiritually guided life-force energy which is used and channeled through the Reiki practitioner in order to produce healing and relaxation.
Sounds good, doesn't it? But the important question is, is it good for you? Just as a person needs to be cautious about what medications they take, as it could be detrimental to their health, so should we be cautious when it comes to things of a spiritual nature, no matter how much the benefits are advertised.
In practicality, Reiki is supposed to be a safe, gentle, non-invasive form of hands-on healing. Recipient reports of experience of Reiki include increased energy, reduction of pain, deep relaxation and a general feeling of well being. Reiki initiation attunes a practitioner to become a channel for the Reiki energy and is apparently a powerful, life-changing experience for physical, mental and spiritual growth.
Now before you all rush out to try this new magical form of healing let's review Reiki and apply it to a Christian and non-Christian view.
Amazingly enough, even though from a Christian point of view Reiki is not something to get involved with (I'll get into why shortly), there are "Christian Reiki practitioners" (oxymoron anyone?) who claim that there's nothing wrong with it and that it is simply a form of healing given to us by God. Numerous Bible verses are thrown around subjectively in an attempt to back up these claims. Because the versus used show that Jesus healed people by the laying on of hands, it is suddenly claimed that Reiki is therefore God's way of getting Christians (and non-Christians, since they can use it too) to use or develop their spiritual gifts of healing, as written in 1 Corinthians 12: 4-11.
There are a few problems with this theory though:
1. Not all people were healed by touch. Very often Jesus simply rebuked the source of ailment, whether or not He was in the same vicinity as the sick person. Long distance healing cannot be done by a level 1 Reiki practitioner but only by something who's also done level 2 and 3. If God has given a person the gift of healing, then their gift will not be dependent on how many levels they've learnt with Reiki.
2. The Spirit in Jesus which healed the sick was the same Spirit in Jesus who raised the dead. Reiki cannot raise the dead. Does that mean that God has given the Christian Reiki practitioners an incomplete gift?
3. When Jesus healed someone they were instantaneously healed as shown by the following three examples taken from the Bible:
Luke 4:38-39 (NKJV)
Now He arose from the synagogue and entered Simon's house. But Simon's wife's mother was sick with a high fever, and they made request of Him concerning her. So He stood over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her. And immediately she arose and served them.
Matthew 8:2-3 (NIV)
A man with leprosy came and knelt before Him and said, "Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean." Jesus reached out His hand and touched the man. "I am willing," He said. "Be clean!" Immediately he was cured of his leprosy.
Mark 10:51-52 (English Standard Version)
And Jesus said to him, "What do you want me to do for you?" And the blind man said to him, "Rabbi, let me recover my sight." And Jesus said to him, "Go your way; your faith has made you well." And immediately he recovered his sight and followed Him on the way.
Unlike the immediate healings performed by Jesus, Reiki healings are not instantaneous and sessions can take up to an hour. Very often a patient has to go back repeatedly to the Reiki practitioner for further sessions until the full healing process is complete. The belief held by some that Jesus actually healed by using Reiki thus seems unfounded. The only thing Jesus and Reiki practitioners have in common is the occasional laying on of hands, but even then Jesus could simply touch a persons hand and they were healed of whatever ailment they had, wherever it was. With Reiki, the practitioners hands have to continually go up and down the patients body, from head to toe, as the healing energy is transmitted.
It seems that there are many Christians who want the gift of healing but are too impatient for God to give them this gift. Healing with Reiki is done by "Christian practitioners" who are too impatient to wait for the real gift to be sent by God and thus turn to something artificial which they latch onto and claim must certainly be God-sent in order to justify it.
Despite all the Bible verses used to back up their claims that Reiki is acceptable for a Christian to perform and receive, it doesn't take more than a closer look at these verses to see that they've been manipulated to try call that which is evil, good.
Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter!
Unlike the results of Reiki healing, any healing which comes from God is perfect and complete. If you subject yourself to Reiki healing you are ultimately opening yourself up to spiritual attack, even if the healing is done by a professing Christian. Don't believe the lies for a second that God will protect you, because He cannot protect you if you step out of His will and dabble with something that is not of Him - of which Reiki isn't. Likewise, I cannot in any way expect God to protect me if I willingly choose to sit in the middle of the road during rush hour traffic. That would just be foolishness and I would have to suffer the consequences thereof.
In order to become a Reiki practitioner, a person has to go through an attunement (a ritual or initiation) whereby "energy" from the Reiki master is passed to the recipient, without which the practitioner cannot perform Reiki. As described by a Reiki master, the attunement procedure is a ceremony of spirit. That alone should sound warning bells for a Christian. If not, then read below what happens as part of the attunement initiation and what the Reiki master does to the recipient:
Lightly touch the forehead (third eye).
Draw the symbols over the forehead (third eye). Again drawing each symbol once, and chanting the name of the symbol three times.
The use of eastern symbols, the third eye and chanting are all synonymous with pagan activities of which Christians are to refrain from. As a Christian, do you really want to receive healing from someone who has gone through this pagan initiation?
So how then does Reiki affect a non-Christian, atheist or agnostic?
Not believing in God or not believing in the laws of God, does not exempt one from suffering the consequences of breaking these laws. Let me give you an example: when I was in Australia last year I almost felt as if I were separate from the law as I was not an Australian citizen and was only visiting there for a short time. After all, unless I did a major crime what could they really do to me? However, at the same time, despite how I felt I still knew that in reality I would be subject to punishment by the Australian judicial system should I have broken any of their laws and had been caught. In reality we are all subject to the laws of God, whether or not we believe in them. Not believing in sickness will not prevent you from becoming sick, neither will not believing in death prevent you from dying. Whether you believe in it or not, dabbling with things spiritual which do not fall within the confines of God's will, will have negative consequences, whether it be immediate, later on in life or at the final judgment.
While I know this all sounds ominous, allow me to ask you this: if the healing powers of Reiki are not from God, then who are they from? Many people would say that surely something which does good, such as Reiki, cannot come from something bad (i.e. satan). But what if that "something good" is used to keep one from being within the will of God? Surely that something good is then bad? If something good is used for evil purposes, then it is no longer good. The devil thus is spreading a lie that Reiki is good, and we know that satan is the father of lies:
John 8:44 (English Standard Version)
You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father's desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and has nothing to do with the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks out of his own character, for he is a liar and the father of lies.
f there is something which does good, but at the same time detracts from the Word of God, then satan will use it. It is not beyond him to use good as long as he achieves evil from it. We know the following about the devil:
1) He can imitate good
2 Corinthians 11:14 (NIV)
And no wonder, for satan himself masquerades as an angel of light.
2) He can imitate the miracles of God
Exodus 7:10-12 (NIV)
So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the Lord commanded. Aaron threw his staff down in front of Pharaoh and his officials, and it become a snake. Pharaoh then summoned wise men and sorcerers, and the Egyptian magicians also did the same things by their secret arts. Each one threw down his staff and it became a snake.
I have heard it foolishly exclaimed that because there is no instance found in the Bible where satan healed someone, then it is presumed that he simply does not heal.
If God heals then you can be certain that that is a trick the devil won't hesitate to cash in on through imitation.
When Christians talk about spiritual warfare, demonic oppression, attack etc. we're not talking about a fable we've been taught to believe since the Sunday School room, we're talking about something each and every believer has experienced and been through.
When it comes to things of a spiritual nature, don't mess with what you don't know. You'll only be opening up doors to yourself that you'll wish you had kept shut (this also goes for acupuncture, hypnosis, therapeutic touch, transcendental meditation and even yoga, to name but a few).
Don't be hard-hearted or stubborn when it comes to this. Whether you believe in Him or not, God has given you a brain, complete with the function to think rationally and objectively. He doesn't need to spell it out for us that Reiki is not of Him - just read the Bible and apply a bit of common sense.
By Sue Bohlin
Reiki is an increasingly popular ‘therapy’ recommended for a variety of acute and chronic conditions. Developed in the late 19th century, it is characterized by the laying on of hands, and based on an ancient Buddhist healing technique. Like other alternative therapies with New Age associations, it involves belief in an invisible life force that generates self-healing. Reiki has no credible scientific basis and there is no evidence for its efficacy.
Reiki is an increasingly popular ‘therapy’ recommended for a variety of acute and chronic conditions. Developed in the late 19th century, it is characterized by the laying on of hands, and based on an ancient Buddhist healing technique. Like other alternative therapies with New Age associations, it involves belief in an invisible life force that generates self-healing. Reiki has no credible scientific basis and there is no evidence for its efficacy in controlled trials. Although posing little medical danger, apart from causing delay in orthodox diagnosis and treatment, its spiritual roots and lack of evidence-base should ring loud alarm bells.
Reiki appears to be a relatively new form of an ancient Buddhist healing practice, characterised by the laying on of hands. An early survey by the Consumers’ Association in 1995 found that around five percent of alternative therapy users consulted spiritual healers including Reiki therapists, a relatively small market share. Reiki has, however, since increased very considerably in popularity, particularly amongst those associated with the holistic healing approach of New Age philosophy and practice.
Reiki is also identified as the Usui system of Natural Healing. It is presented as: ‘an effective system for healing and stimulating mental, emotional and spiritual growth’, offering relief from stress, unhappiness, depression and disease. Its essential philosophy is identified in the two components of its name:
Ki is comparable to the chi of Chinese acupuncture and other expressions of life force in different cultures and traditions.
Eleanor McKenzie, in her book, Healing Reiki, states, ‘Reiki is primarily perceived as a practice for healing the body but it is also a method for healing the mind and spirit’. Walter Lubeck, a prominent Reiki teacher, writes, ‘…in the holistic, natural sense, Reiki energy stimulates the body to heal’.
Whilst similar practices have been traced back to Egyptian, Indian, Polynesian and Asian cultures, Reiki is based on ancient Buddhist healing technique. Mikai Usui (born 1860), a Japanese scholar and Buddhist monk, initiated the present Usui system of healing towards the end of the nineteenth century. He had become passionately interested in miraculous healing and travelled extensively in USA and elsewhere in search of answers, eventually returning to a Zen Buddhist monastery in Japan. He spent 21 days fasting at the top of Mount Kurayama, near Kyoto, and described being struck by a ray of light from heaven that he accepted as a dramatic initiation into the Healing Power of Universal Life Energy. Descending from the mountain, he put his newfound power into action, apparently with dramatic results.
He developed Reiki Healing, which gradually spread across Japan in the early 1900’s. Recognising Usui as the First Grand Master, the secrets of Reiki were handed down in hierarchical fashion to Dr Chujiro Hayashi and from him to a Hawaiian lady, Hawayo Takata. Her granddaughter, Phyllis Lei Furumoto continued to teach and practise Reiki in many quarters of the World. Reiki Masters formed the Reiki Alliance in 1981. There are now many varieties of Reiki, with modifications and practices believed to have been received directly from the Ascended Masters, including Dr Usui himself; this process can be compared with the channelling of New Age spirit guides. Healing rays of Reiki are said to emanate directly from The Creative Force, Mother/Father God or Divine Intelligence.
Today, practical Reiki healing is a gentle hands on technique, said to work by channelling energy into the body by placing the therapists’ hands on 12-20 specific areas, usually over energy centres called chakras, for a few minutes. Seven chakras are usually described: crown, forehead, throat, heart, solar plexus, sexual and root, which are said to relate to all body organs but particularly endocrine glands. These are clearly comparable with the chakras described in the Hindu practice of yoga and other varieties of alternative therapies based on energy concepts.
It is suggested that the healing power of Reiki can affect animals and inanimate objects; flow into walls, plants and food; improve the efficiency of household appliances and even repair computers and cars. A video presentation of Reiki showed the person being grounded - returned to their normal state after treatment - by drinking a glass of cold water. This suggests that an altered state of consciousness or hypnosis might be involved.
Reiki is recommended for acute and chronic conditions including viral infections, migraines, eczema and psoriasis, arthritis, and both mental and spiritual problems. It is increasingly used in hospices for the treatment of breathless patients.
Reiki healers adhere to strict forms of initiation from a Reiki Master through the laying on of hands, spiritual attunement and training at three levels or degrees. The first degree, usually over the course of two days, involves receiving and channelling Universal Life Force. In the second degree, Reiki knowledge and power is expanded using secret mantras and symbols. Distant healing is taught and practised, sometimes whilst holding a photograph of the sick person. The third degree primarily involves initiation as a Reiki Master and Teacher. Reiki treatment and initiation can be expensive. The UK Reiki Foundation lists practitioners and provides education and therapy.
Is there a logical, scientific basis?
No credible scientific basis can be identified in this therapy. Some researchers suggest that there may be an effect through the endocrine glands, possibly stimulated through chakras (energy centres). Others suggest that endorphins may be involved. This can, however, only be speculative: no evidence has been produced for these theories. Because of Reiki’s essentially spiritual nature, there has been little scientific investigation. Reiki manuals emphasise relaxation and stress reduction rather than physical healing; again, this makes scientific evaluation difficult.
Does it work?
Evaluating the effectiveness of touch and energy therapies can be extremely difficult; finding a suitable placebo for clinical trials can be especially problematic. The Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine at Exeter University performed a systematic review of distant healing: only 23 out of 100 trials were considered rigorous enough to be admitted to the survey. Of these, only one included Reiki as one arm of the trial and no firm conclusions could be drawn. Its teachers emphasise that Reiki does not set out to replace orthodox medical care. Therapists emphasise the benefits of following the Reiki spiritual path: improved holistic health with the expectation that this may include physical healing.
Is it safe?
The nature of this therapy does not suggest the likelihood of any specific medical dangers. Medical researchers have not found any significant safety concerns. If a hypnotic element is involved, this might bring associated dangers such as altered awareness and later personality problems. Reiki is not considered suitable for psychiatric patients. The usual warnings regarding alternative therapies must apply: delays in either orthodox medical diagnosis or obtaining effective medical treatment may be dangerous.
From a Christian perspective, there certainly are spiritual dangers, which cannot be ignored. The concept of Rei as the invisible source of all being and of Ki as the Universal Life Force are completely at variance with the Christian belief in God as Creator and Heavenly Father. Reiki claims to be independent of any religious belief systems but Buddhist, Hindu and Taoist influences can be clearly identified. Reiki healers often have strong New Age associations, at times using occult techniques, crystals and tarot cards. Divination, necromancy and the receiving of knowledge and power by channelling are forbidden in the Bible. It has been suggested that the Reiki laying on of hands is similar to the healing miracles of Jesus and his disciples. Yet we need to ask, ‘By what spirit is this being applied?’
Reiki claims to be a spiritual path leading to physical, mental, emotional and spiritual attunement, harmony, good health and happiness. As a holistic therapy with Buddhist roots, it clearly has serious spiritual implications but does not and cannot supply answers for the basic spiritual sicknesses of mankind such as sin, guilt, fear and the need for forgiveness and salvation. Surely healing rays or an impersonal life force cannot deal with these problems. Only the Christian gospel provides a cure for such sickness. For Christians, only the power of God’s Holy Spirit can provide acceptable and effective healing. We need to be aware of counterfeits and certainly not be involved in them, however harmless they may appear at first sight.
Believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God. (1 John 4:1 KJV)
George Smith is a Dermatologist and former GP in Berkshire
There are very good grounds for rejecting Reiki if one is willing to listen to the Bible. In a book entitled Basic Questions on Alternative Medicine, a corporate project by members of the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications, 1988), there is a short chapter on Reiki (pp. 61-63). I will draw some information from that chapter.
Although Reiki claims to be an "ancient healing practice that Buddha (and Jesus) used," all records of it were lost. It was allegedly rediscovered by Mikao Usui, a Zen Buddhist monk, in the mid-1800s "during a psychic experience." Additionally, it is claimed that details about lost aspects of the practice have "been revealed through channeling." Channeling is the New Age term for mediumship and involves contact with, and usually possession by, "spirit guides." The authors of this chapter state that a second-degree Reiki practitioner "learns about spirit guides and how to contact and use them in healing sessions." They further state that third degree Reiki masters give "complete control of healing sessions to their spirit guides." Healing sessions appear to be based on the use of "life-energy" (i.e. ki, chi, or prana), which is sent from the practitioner into the patient's body.
The greatest concern would seem to be the identity of the "spirit guides." Since they are typically contacted in ways expressly forbidden in Scripture, and since they advocate unbiblical ideas and practices, it is honestly quite difficult to view them as anything other than the biblical demons. The authors of this chapter conclude by stating: "Reiki is antithetical to biblical Christianity. Channeling is a way of communicating with spirits to obtain information not otherwise accessible. It is denounced in the Bible as sorcery, mediumship, and spiritism (Lev. 19:26, 31; 20:6; Deut. 18:9-14...)."
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