ON THIS PAGE
A Recap Of The Article 'Original Sin - Fact or Fable'
Genes.. What they Are and What They Do
Epigenetics - Defining the Terms
Altering the Expression of Genes
Inheriting Epigenetic Changes
The Effects of
Inheriting Cultural, Personality or even Psychiatric Traits
Epigenetic Changes - Permanent or Reversible?
Darwinism or Epigenetics
Epigenetics and Romans 5 - Paul Was Right on Target
Reversing the Condition
The New Birth
Restoring Us To The "Son of God" and "Image of God" Status
A Recap Of The Article 'Original Sin - Fact or Fable' HERE
It has long been assumed by proponents of Original Sin that Adam' sin was transferred to all future generations tainting even the unborn. That Adam's legacy to all his descendants is a moral corruption that causes every member of the human race to be born guilty of sin long before they commit one for themselves. Depending on whom you talk to either Adam's descendants have a sin nature, or a inclination to sin, or inherit the very sin of Adam and Eve. One way or the other Adam's sin was imputed or charged to our account with the result that we too are legally guilty and are condemned to hell because of it. In other words, we all sinned when Adam sinned or, as they like to put it, we all sinned "in Adam".
Several passages in Romans, particularly from the fifth chapter, are often used as proof texts for Original Sin and the total depravity of man.
In any case there are innumerable Scriptural passages that clearly and unambiguously tell us that no person can bear the guilt of another, but will answer for their own sins and misdeeds... that our eternal destiny is determined by our conduct, not by inheritance, and that every single person will be judged by his own actions whether they be good or bad.
In other words it is simply untrue that we are sinners because Adam sinned. Which means there has to be a lot more to the 'proof texts' from Romans than first meets the eye. But in order to arrive at the truth of what Paul meant means skipping the philosophic assumptions derived from a shallow reading of the words. It take work. HERE
On the other hand, what we can not ignore is that Paul definitely made a direct connection between Adam's sin and the fallen condition of the entire race. In Romans 5 Paul seems to be saying that something happened to all humanity because of Adam's sin. That the entire race was affected - not by sinning themselves, but rather through the sin of Adam. These statements are very intriguing especially since they seem to fly in the face of many other verses that say exactly the opposite. What then did Paul mean when he said
"by one man sin entered into the world". (Romans 5:12a)
So then as through one trespass the judgment came unto all men to condemnation (Romans 5:18a)
"For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one (Jesus) shall many be made righteous." (Romans 5:19)
This brings up the very interesting question of how exactly Adam's sin affected his descendants causing them to be separated from the Father and the Tree of Life and doomed to physically die? What was the 'something' that caused man to no longer be "in His image"? ... A something that has to be put right before a person can be once more considered a "son of God" eligible for the Kingdom of Heaven.
The answer to the above question may very well be found in relatively new scientific discoveries... the emerging field of Epigenetics. As the name suggests, this is a field associated with the study of genes, But first we should briefly identify what a gene is and what it does.
What they Are and What They Do
Found in all human, animal and plant life, genes are basic biological hereditary units -sections or segments of DNA located on chromosomes within the nucleus of each cell. Copied and inherited across generations genes determine specific human characteristics such as height or hair/eye color. Children usually look like their parents because they have inherited their parents' genes.
We commonly accepted that our genes determined a great many of our characteristics... our body shape, our personality, our intelligence and even our health. While no one gene determines whether a person has a disease or not, there is a degree of a genetic disposition towards certain illnesses. Some diseases like diabetes, asthma, cancer and mental illness "have a complex pattern of inheritance" and "a number of genes may each make a subtle contribution to a person's susceptibility to a disease" 
Some even believe that genes are the root cause of countless social ills, including crime, and violence. In other words, a person is violent or asthmatic because they inherited "bad genes" and there was little one could do about it because all, or at least most, patterns were firmly established during early fetal development.
However fairly recent discoveries are shaking many of these concepts.
While genes (or the genome) contain the manual for the human body, they themselves operate according to sets of instructions.
Epigenetics - Defining the Terms
In modern molecular biology and genetics... the genome can be likened to the hardware, while the epigenome is the software.
The Genome is the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism and contains all of an organism's hereditary information.
The Epigenome: Epi is a prefix taken from the Greek that means on or above. Therefore the epigenome, which is cellular material, sits on top of the genome or just outside of it and governs how the gene behaves.
Epigenetics that literally means on top of or in addition to genes is the study of how environmental factors like diet, stress and maternal nutrition can change gene function without altering the underlying DNA sequence in any way which, until recently, was scientific heresy.
Altering the Expression of Genes
Jeanne Loring is the director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine at the Scripps Research Institute. Her research has been focused on epigenetics - hidden changes in genes not involving a change in the basic DNA sequence itself. She quotes an article by the BBC that was entitled The Ghost in Your Genes. (All Emphasis Added)
"At the heart of this new field is a simple but contentious idea - that genes have a 'memory'… Epigenetics adds a whole new layer to genes beyond the DNA. It proposes a control system of 'switches' that turn genes on or off - and suggests that things people experience, like nutrition and stress, can control these switches and cause heritable effects in humans." 
Discover Magazine's November 2006 edition carried an article entitled DNA Is Not Destiny, in which they said (All Emphasis Added)
Our DNA - specifically the 25,000 genes identified by the Human Genome Project - is now widely regarded as the instruction book for the human body. But genes themselves need instructions for what to do, and where and when to do it. A human liver cell contains the same DNA as a brain cell, yet somehow it knows to code only those proteins needed for the functioning of the liver. Those instructions are found not in the letters of the DNA itself but on it, in an array of chemical markers and switches, known collectively as the epigenome, that lie along the length of the double helix. These epigenetic switches and markers in turn help switch on or off the expression of particular genes. 
Inheriting Epigenetic Changes
The conventional view was that every characteristic that we inherit is carried by our DNA and that nothing an we do in our lifetime can be biologically passed to our children. Whatever choices we make during our lives might make us fat, give us a heart attack and hasten death but they won't change our genes.
The fascinating part that flies in the face of all previously held beliefs is a growing body of evidence suggesting that what your genes do or don't do is not set in stone, but the epigenetic changes wrought by one's diet, behavior, or surroundings can reverberate far into the future. In other words, what you eat or smoke today could affect the health and behavior of your great-grandchildren.
... although we all know that smoking in pregnancy is detrimental, but what we are usually not aware of is if a boy smokes during his teens it might have epigenetic effects on his sons" 
Emma Whitelaw (of the University of Sydney) demonstrated that epigenetic marks could be passed from one generation of mammals to the next. (The phenomenon had already been demonstrated in plants and yeast.)
Agouti are agile long-legged rodents, whereas agouti mice are characterized by yellow coats, the tendency towards obesity, and prone to disease.When Whitelaw and her colleagues studied the inheritance of coat colour in Agouti mice, they found that (All Emphasis Added)
...independent of the sequence of the coat colour gene, the mother's coat colour influences the likelihood of the pups having the same colour coat. For instance, a yellow mother has more pups that are yellow than mottled, whereas a mottled mother is likely to have a higher percentage of mottled pups. But the gene that determines the coat colour has an identical sequence in both the yellow and mottled mothers, so something else must be coming from the mother to influence coat colour. Whitelaw and colleagues show that an epigenetic mark located at the start of the gene is responsible; it influences the expression of the gene, which in turn determines the colour of the coat. Instead of being completely erased in the mother's germ line, this epigenetic mark is passed on to subsequent generations, where it exerts an influence on coat colour. 
In other words, you are born with a set of genes, but it is the expression (behavior) of those genes that matters. The idea that inheritance is not just about which genes you inherit but whether these are switched on or off is a whole new frontier in biology, and has brought us to the sudden realization that we appear to have a measure of control over our genetic legacy.
The Effects of Nutrition:
Although it is well known that the conditions in the mother's womb can alter the development of a fetus and is still considered a critical period, scientists have lately discovered that the epigenome can change in response to the environment throughout an individual's lifetime. In other words our free will (not fate) can determine a great deal about us including our health.
And this is not all.
Methyl Groups are basic units in organic chemistry and are entirely derived from the foods people eat, while the term methylated means that a substance has at least one methyl group. Choline, a nutrient in the B Vitamin family, is endowed with three methyl groups. When a methyl group attaches to a specific spot on a gene — a process called DNA methylation — it can change the gene's expression, turning it off or on, dampening it or making it louder."
As an example of the role that diet can play, consider the study done in the year 2000 by Randy Jirtle, a professor of radiation oncology at Duke University and his postdoctoral student Robert Waterland. Discover Magazine calls the experiment "simplicity itself". As previously mentioned. (All Emphasis Added)
Agouti mice are so called because they carry the agouti gene, which makes them yellow, fat, hungry all the time, prone to diabetes and cancer, and unsurprisingly they die young. The offspring of agouti mice are usually also fat, hungry, short-lived and prone to disease like their parents.
In 2000, some researchers at Duke University did a simple experiment in which they gave some folic acid (or vitamin B9 as it is also known) to one group of pregnant agouti mice, and didn't give it to a second group of pregnant agouti mice.
The results were extraordinary – the offspring of the folic acid fed mice were slim, a normal mousy brown colour, not prone to disease (their parents' susceptibility to cancer and diabetes) and lived to a ripe old age even though these healthy offspring still carried the agouti gene unchanged.
The offspring of the pregnant mice that weren't given folic acid turned out like their parents – fat, yellow and disease prone and also carried the agouti gene unchanged.
The folic acid caused these changes by virtue of the fact that folic acid is a 'methyl donor' and it modified the way that the agouti gene is expressed. 
The effects of the agouti gene had been virtually erased without altering a single letter of the mouse's DNA.
How was this accomplished? Conventional wisdom would suggest that they were fed a witches brew of lab concocted chemicals. Not so!
The approach of the researchers was radically straightforward - they changed the moms' diet feeding them a diet rich in methyl donors commonly found in many foods, including onions, garlic, beets, and in the food supplements often given to pregnant women.
The mothers passed along the agouti gene to their children intact, but thanks to their methyl-rich pregnancy diet, they had added to the gene a chemical switch that dimmed the gene's deleterious effects.
"It was a little eerie and a little scary to see how something as subtle as a nutritional change in the pregnant mother rat could have such a dramatic impact on the gene expression of the baby," Jirtle says. "The results showed how important epigenetic changes could be." 
One further example bears mentioning..
In November 2005, Marcus Pembrey, a clinical geneticist at the Institute of Child Health in London, attended a conference at Duke University to present intriguing data drawn from two centuries of records on crop yields and food prices in an isolated town in northern Sweden. Pembrey and Swedish researcher Lars Olov Bygren noted that fluctuations in the towns' food supply may have health effects spanning at least two generations. Grandfathers who lived their preteen years during times of plenty were more likely to have grandsons with diabetes - an ailment that doubled the grandsons' risk of early death.
Equally notable was that the effects were sex specific. A grandfather's access to a plentiful food supply affected the mortality rates of his grandsons only, not those of his granddaughters, and a paternal grandmother's experience of feast affected the mortality rates of her granddaughters, not her grandsons. 
However nutrition is only one player. While we already know that there are significant behavioral changes in children who grew up without maternal care, Michael Meaney of McGill University in Montreal ... (All Emphasis Added)
compared two types of mother rats: those that patiently licked their offspring after birth and those that neglected their newborns. The licked newborns grew up to be relatively brave and calm (for rats). The neglected newborns grew into the sort of rodents that nervously skitter into the darkest corner when placed in a new environment...
After analyzing the brain tissue of both licked and non-licked rats, the researchers found distinct differences in the DNA methylation patterns in the hippocampus cells of each group. Remarkably, the mother's licking activity had the effect of removing dimmer switches on a gene that shapes stress receptors in the pup's growing brain ...Through a simple maternal behavior, these mother rats were literally shaping the brains of their offspring. 
Inheriting Cultural, Personality or even Psychiatric Traits
Prospect Magazine also bring up the alarming possibility that certain "cultural, personality or even psychiatric traits" can be passed down through epigenetic inheritance. (Article is well worth reading)
For instance, historical "insults," such as Oliver Cromwell's brutal reconquest of Ireland in 1649, have led to an "embedding" of attitudes within the affected communities that persist for generations. However, it has generally been thought that this phenomenon could be explained by Richard Dawkins's theory of memes, according to which cultural or intellectual traits are passed down via non-genetic mechanisms such as storytelling. The possibility raised by epigenetics is that such cultural transmission may, after all, have a genetic component. Could it be that historical traumas, such as transatlantic slavery, leave some kind of genetic mark on the descendants of their victims? 
A paper on Early Childhood Health Development by University College Dublin says (All Emphasis Added)
The mechanisms that lead to deficits in using socially accepted behaviour are strongly intergenerational, based on complex genetic and environmental contributions, including epigenetic mechanisms. Prevention of these deficits requires early, intensive and long-term support to parents and child. Newly discovered epigenetic mechanisms suggest that intensive perinatal interventions will have impacts on numerous aspects of physical and mental health, including DB (disruptive behaviour). 
Epigenetic Changes... Permanent or Reversible?
How long these Epigenetic changes can last is a question that can not yet be answered, since the results seem to vary quite widely.
"fruit flies exposed to a drug called geldanamycin show unusual outgrowths on their eyes that can last through at least 13 generations of offspring even though no change in DNA has occurred (and generations 2 through 13 were not directly exposed to the drug).
When, in 2004, Michael Skinner, a geneticist at Washington State University was studying the effect of a commonly used agricultural fungicide on rats, he discovered that only did male rats exposed to high doses of the chemical while their mothers were pregnant, have lower sperm counts later in life, but the effect continued for several generations down to the great-great-grandsons. 
In another study, roundworms fed with a particular type of bacteria exhibit loss of a green fluorescent protein and a small dumpy appearance that lasts 40 generations. In human terms, factoring for 40 years equaling one generation, would represent 1600 years of generational history". As he goes on to say - Behavior also alters the epigenome. 
However, the good news is that Epigenetic changes are reversible (Article is well worth reading)
Unlike defective genes, which are damaged for life, methylated genes can be demethylated. And, methyl tags that are knocked off can be regained via nutrients, drugs, and enriching experiences. 
Epigenetics and Darwinism
So what did Charles Darwin actually observe when he visited the Galapagos Islands near Ecuador over a century ago – gene mutations or gene switching (epigenetics)?
The finches on those islands are of similar size, coloration, and habits but have different sized and shaped beaks. Although Darwin had no idea as to how this happened he speculated that the finches with different beaks had evolved from a common ancestor their beaks evolving over generations to be best suited to the available food. Since then the finches are celebrated as a classic instance of the workings of evolution through natural selection.
What is rarely considered is that if the changes had not been rapid, the birds would not have survived at all. This is far more indicative of gene switching (epigenetics) rather than gene mutations or natural selection.
Darwinian evolution has never been demonstrated, but epigenetic changes have been repeatedly demonstrated in the laboratory.
However what has all this to do with Original Sin and the apostle Paul's words in the book of Romans?
Epigenetics and Romans 5
Paul Was Right on Target
We have only recently discovered that the epigenome can change in response to diet, stress, nutrition and the environment... and that these changes occur throughout an individual's lifetime. Also the epigenetic changes that come about by the choices we make or the situations we find ourselves in during our lifetime can be biologically passed to not only our children, but can reverberate far into the future affecting future generations.
Note that all the factors (that we know of) that can be responsible for changes in the epigenome became issues when Adam and Eve sinned and were banished from the garden. In view of their hiding from Him (Genesis 3:8-10), we know they must have felt intense guilt and shame at having disobeyed the Lord which, along with their expulsion from Eden, had to have led to a great deal of stress. The couple went from a safe and plentiful garden to the outside world, which meant that their environment changed significantly. They now had to grow their own food, which must have meant an appreciable change in their diet.
In view of which it should be extremely easy to acknowledge that although Paul very likely did not understand the mechanism behind his statements he was right on target when, in Romans 5, he implied that something happened to all humanity because of Adam's sin.
Note that he was not the only one. Many of the Old Testament prophets could not have understood the science behind many of the things they said. See Scientific Facts in the Scriptures And one has to wonder how much they understood of their many other prophecies.
Why would it be too much to believe that significant changes took place in Adam and Eve's epigenome which was then inherited by future generations? In fact, this is far easier to believe than the fairy story of inherited sin especially when the Bible categorically denies this is even possible.
Adam's Role: The Bible teaches, even though Eve was the first to sin, it was through Adam that sin entered the world.
"Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. (Romans: 5:12)
Was specifically mentioning Adam just laying blame at his door because he was the head of the human race to whom the original warning was given or was Paul referring to something else - something that he could not have had any real knowledge of?
However, in recent years questions have also arisen as to how much epigenetic change is transmitted through the sperm of the male. One paper concludes that "sex-specific, male-line transgenerational responses exist in humans".  Some studies suggest that RNA found in human sperm might also affect human inheritance. According to Shurjo K. Sen Program Director Division of Genome Sciences
"RNA or Ribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid present in all living cells that has structural similarities to DNA. Some RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression" 
Reversing The Condition
However this is not where it ends. Science shows that the gene's expression can be turned on or off - it can be dampened or made louder. In other words, any changes to the epigenome is reversible. The Bible says exactly the same thing but said it centuries ago
"For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one (Jesus) shall many be made righteous." (Romans 5:19)
Remember that Jesus said that no one will enter the Kingdom of Heaven unless they have been born again (John 3:3-8) however, the Greek words translated "born again" can equally well be translated "born from above". In fact Jesus also called it being "born of the Spirit" (John 3:5,8). Essentially this second birth is very different from the physical birth when your mother delivered you because this one comes about through something the God's Holy Spirit does. However, being Born Again of God is commonly believed to be in a figurative rather than a literal sense.
But what if it is not?
What if this being Born Again of God, or being fathered by God involves some actual physical changes that completely transform the person?
If, for all the reasons previously mentioned, Adam and Eve's epigenome underwent some drastic changes, why wouldn't true Biblical repentance and a conscious decision to follow Christ result in God 're-setting' the altered Epigenome which, in essence, would be a new birth from above. While we certainly inherit faulty gene function from our parents, God simply resets the expression (behavior) of those genes. He is after all slightly more powerful that Methyl groups (Tongue firmly in cheek)
There is a very telling verse in 1 John which says...
No one who is born of God practices sin, because His seed abides in him; and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. (1 John 3:9 NASB)
In the above verse the word translated seed is the Greek sperma (seed), which quite obviously is where we get the English word "sperm". So when the Bible says someone is "born of God" it means that person is 'fathered' by God through the work of the Holy Spirit (John 3:5). It is a spiritual birth that, according to 2 Corinthians 5:17, causes the person involved to become a "new creature" and all old things to pass away.
The New Birth
When a person is born again not only does God forgives their wrongdoings but His God's Holy Spirit comes to live in that person. This simply means the person is under the Spirit's control or, as the Bible says is 'filled with the Spirit'. In other words, because Jesus paid the price of for our sins by we have been acquitted of all wrong doing and made right with God. See Salvation
However, this is not all. When people are Born Again of the Spirit two other changes that are of utmost importance take place. The New Birth ...
1.) Restores Us To The "Son of God" Status
To be particularly noted is that the Biblical term "Sons of Elohim" (son of the Creator Himself), is only used of someone who is born of a specific divine act of creation.
The angels, who were directly created by the Father are referred to as B’nai HaElohim or sons of God (Job 1:6])
Jesus is referred to as the Son of God throughout the New Testament simply because, although He was with the Father from the beginning, He was also God's Son in that He was conceived in Mary by the Holy Spirit.
However, except for Adam who was created directly by God, no human in the Old Testament was ever called a Son of God. It was only after believers in the New Testament were born again of the Spirit of God and considered to be a new creation that they are again referred to as sons of God. As Romans 8:15 says We "have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, "Abba! Father!"
(Please Note that the tense used in Romans 8:15 is VERY significant. It says we "have received a spirit of adoption" whereas Romans 8:23 says we are "waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our body. Those who are actually interested in what the Bible says on the subject - and who are willing to pay close attention to the words the apostles chose to use will run across some extremely confusing statements that flatly contradict each other. For example, the New Testament sometimes says that salvation is an accomplished reality (past), is an ongoing process (present continuous), and even that it has yet to happen (future). Also note that this seeming contradiction is not limited to salvation alone but occurs with bewildering regularity in statements about other crucially important topics - justification, redemption, glorification and as shown - adoption. See The Two Phase Atonement
2.) Restores Us To The "Image of God"
Genesis 1:26-27 is very intriguing inasmuch as it says God created man in His image (The plural "Us" and "Our" is whole other topic)
Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. (Genesis 1:26-27 NASB)
The words "In His image" has given rise to much debate and varied opinions on what it could mean including man's capacity to rule (based on Genesis 1:26), his capacity for relationship, morality and righteousness etc. and could possibly combine any or all of these elements.
However, although the Bible gives us no clue as to the meaning of this enigmatic phrase perhaps we should look a little deeper. The man God made in His image was called a 'son of God" (Luke 3:38), but when he transgressed it seems apparent that this image was lost for all subsequent generations. I say this because no man was ever called a "son of God" again until Jesus. On two occasions Paul explicitly refers to Christ as the eikôn tou Theo - the image of God.
the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Corinthians 4:4 NASB)
He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. (Colossians 1:15 NASB)
However, Paul also referred to born again believers as being conformed to the image of Jesus.
For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren; (Romans 8:29 NASB)
For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man. (1 Corinthians 11:7 NASB)
This may be a theory but it goes a long way towards explaining Paul's statements in Romans 5 as to how one man's actions could affect the entire race even before they sinned themselves. It also throws a more literal spin on Paul's words that tell us that anyone who is in Christ is a new creature, with the old things passed away. (2 Corinthians 5:17).
And quite frankly it is less fanciful than some of the explanations of Born Again I have read - with the added advantage of being scientifically possible. (Science is not a dirty word - God Himself invented everything that man has, discovered and continues to discover. What man makes of it or sometimes does with it is a different story)
 Introduction to Genes and Disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=gnd&part=gnd_book_info
 Eric Sauter. The Secret Life of Stem Cells. News & Views. Online Weekly of the Scripps Research Institute
 Ethan Watters. DNA Is Not Destiny. Discover Magazine. Published online November 22, 2006.Article updated Jul 11, 2023
 Epigenetics: Are You What Your Grandparents Ate? The Doctors Digest.http://thedoctorsdigest.com/epigenetics-grandparents-ate/
 Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse pp 314 - 318. Hugh D. Morgan, Heidi G.E. Sutherland, David I.K. Martin & Emma Whitelaw. http://www.nature.com/ng/press_release/ng1199.html. Link is no longer viable
 Epigenetics: Are You What Your Grandparents Ate? The Doctors Digest. http://thedoctorsdigest.com/epigenetics-grandparents-ate/
 Ethan Watters. DNA Is Not Destiny: The New Science of Epigenetics. Last Updated Jul 11, 2023
 Ethan Watters. DNA Is Not Destiny: https://davidcenter.com/documents/Health/DNAandDestiny.pdf
 Philip Hunter. What Genes Remember. Prospect Magazine. 24 May 2008. https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/essays/52338/what-genes-remember
 Richard E Tremblay. National Library of Medicine. Developmental origins of disruptive behaviour problems: the 'original sin' hypothesis, epigenetics and their consequences for prevention. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20146751
 William and Mary Cunningham. Environmental Science: A Global Concern Page 173
 Bill Sardi. From the Genesis Garden to Galapagos and Back.
 Peter D'Adamo, ND. Methods of Epigenetic Inheritance. https://www.dadamo.com/txt/index.pl?1040
 National Library of Medicine. Sex-specific, male-line transgenerational responses in humans https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16391557/#:~:text=We%20conclude%20that%20
 Shurjo K. Sen. National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/RNA-Ribonucleic-Acid