{ scrollbar-base-color: #9999cc; scrollbar-arrow-color: white; scrollbar-track-color: #ccccff; scrollbar-shadow-color: black; scrollbar-lightshadow-color: black; scrollbar-darkshadow-color: gray; scrollbar-highlight-color: white; scrollbar-3dlight-color: black; }

Section 11... Cults/
Index To Jehovah’s Witnesses

  003white Index To Section 11 ... Cults       >        Index To Jehovah’s Witnesses     >       False Claims

Kingdom Hall 2

Jehovah’s Witnesses

Back-Pedaling, Contradictions, and False Prophecy

Carol Brooks

Index to All Nine Chapters

The Presumptuous Claims Made By The Watchtower For Itself

When Was The Watchtower Chosen by Christ?

The Prophecies and Predictions That Lost Their Way
Jesus' Return
The Harvest Season
The Watchtower's Name Reflected The Doctrine Current at The Time
1925 and The Resurrection of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob etc.
Finally In 2013 - A Complete Retraction of Previously Held Beliefs/Teachings

(The emphasis - both bold and underlining - in all quotes is mine)
See https://avoidjw.org/magazines/ for older yearly volumes of Jehovah's Witnesses' Watchtower & Awake magazines including Consolation and Golden Age.


The Presumptuous Claims Made By The Watchtower For Itself
In 1954 The Watchtower claimed not to be infallible...

    In regard to how the truth is brought forth through Jehovah's organization, please note that if the Watch Tower Society were infallible there would be no need for future correction of viewpoints held; but because it is not infallible and has never claimed to be, from time to time corrections are necessary. If Jehovah's spirit operated in the way it did upon Bible writers, inspiring them to write according to Jehovah's thoughts, then no future corrections in matters would ever be necessary...  [01]

And in 1993 they claimed not to have "the gift of prophecy".

    Jehovah's Witnesses, in their eagerness for Jesus' second coming, have suggested dates that turned out to be incorrect. Because of this, some have called them false prophets. Never in these instances, however, did they presume to originate predictions 'in the name of Jehovah. 'Never did they say, 'These are the words of Jehovah.' The Watchtower, the official journal of Jehovah's Witnesses, has said: " We have not the gift of prophecy.” (January 1883, page 425) "Nor would we have our writings reverenced or regarded as infallible.” [02].

In the first place they did far more that "suggest" dates but made very specific predictions. In the second place I have absolutely no idea how the above statements can be reconciled with several others made over the course of the years. For example,

No Man's Opinion Is Expressed In the Watchtower

    the Watchtower itself says that it is "...not the instrument of any man or set of men, nor is it published according to the whims of men. No man's opinion is expressed in The Watchtower.  [03]

The Watchtower is God's SOLE Channel of Communication (All Emphasis Added)

    1919: "Is not the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society the one and only channel which the Lord has used in dispensing his truth continually since the beginning of the harvest period?" [04]

    1966: Today the anointed spirit-begotten witnesses of Jehovah, comprising the "faithful and discreet slave,” serve as an earthly channel of communication for the great crowd of people who will survive Armageddon. These anointed witnesses along with the "great crowd" of companions form the modern-day Christian organization through which God's spirit is in operation. (Matt. 24:45-51; Rev. 7:9-17) Never has God had more than one channel of communication at one time.  [05]

    1969: Such fine guides to accurate knowledge, provided by Jehovah as the Great Teacher through his channel of communication in the earth today help us to appreciate what Jehovah requires of each person who loves him and desires to serve him. [06]

But the Watchtower went even further claiming to be a

A "Prophet of God"
A prediction is a statement of what will happen in the future. Although predictions can be the result of extra-sensory ability they are usually based on experience, knowledge, and observation. Prophecies on the other hand usually have religious connotations, i.e made under divine inspiration. Referring to the League of Nations being a counterfeit substitute for the real kingdom of God, the Watchtower said,

     He (Jehovah) had a "prophet" to warn them. This "prophet" was not one man, but was a body of men and women. It was the small group of footstep followers of Jesus Christ, known at that time as International Bible Students. Today they are known as Jehovah's Christian witnesses. ...Of course, it is easy to say that this group acts as a "prophet" of God. It is another thing to prove it. The only way that this can be done is to review the record. What does it show?  [07]

In 1984 The Watchtower specifically said that it was Jehovah's prophetic word that the 1914 generation would see the 'the time of the end'. See section 'Armageddon Would End in 1914' below. And, every two weeks from 1952 to October 1995, (approx. 43 years) Awake magazine's masthead said

     Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away. [08]

(In November 1955 the Creator apparently altered His "promise" but more about that later)

When Was The Watchtower Chosen by Christ?

In answer to the question of what important developments began to unfold in 1914, the 2013 Watchtower magazine said,

    From 1914 to the early part of 1919, Jesus accompanied his Father to the spiritual temple to do a much-needed inspection and cleansing work.* (Mal. 3:1-4) Then, starting in 1919, it was time to begin gathering the wheat. Was it finally the time for Christ to appoint one organized channel to dispense spiritual food? Yes, indeed!  [09]

In other words, right after Christ returned in 1914 He began judging his servants, a task that was completed in 1918 - in which year He also chose the Watchtower as God's "only channel".

The Contradictions
However, this date flatly contradicts one made by Charles Russell in 1909,

    "In the time of his (Christ's) presence, he (Jesus) would bring forth from the storehouse of Grace, Wisdom and Truth things 'new and old,' and that he would select at that time one special channel through which those blessings would be called to the attention of the household of faith- " [10]

We know Russell's words "at that time" referred to the 1870s simply because he believed that Jesus Christ's presence began in 1874 not 1914. In other words, according to Russell the Watchtower was selected as the "one special channel" long before 1918 .

The Test:
The Watchtower itself once said

    Should the truth be suppressed because it exposes falsehood and corruption? Never!.Jesus never hesitated to speak the truth, even though he was killed at the instigation of the angered religious leaders for doing so. - John 17:14; Jas. 4:4. Therefore, how will you respond when pointed statements are made about false religious teachings and corrupt practices?  Will you immediately condemn the person or organization making the expose? Contrary to what some may think, it is not unkind and unloving to lay bare falsehood and corruption." [10b]

So is it true that the Watchtower Society was 'chosen by Christ as God's SOLE channel of Communication, that as a group they act as a "prophet" of God', provide a 'fine guide to accurate knowledge', and that their writings do not contain any man's opinion?

In their own words the only way to prove they act as a prophet is by reviewing the record.

So let's do just that...

The Prophecies and Predictions That Lost Their Way

Jesus' Return

Jesus Would Return in 1874
Some of what was mentioned in Chapter 1 bears repeating here.

The Seventh Day Adventist church can be traced back to a William Miller who believed that the present world would end with the advent of Christ in 1843—1844 A. D. This obviously didn't happen.

1874/1878: Based on some of William Miller's teaching Nelson Barbour, a former 'Millerite' then claimed that Jesus had invisibly returned to earth in the autumn of 1874 and that Christians would be caught up to heaven three-and-one-half years later, in the spring of 1878. This was the main subject of his book Three Worlds and the Harvest of This World published and promoted by Charles Taze Russell. (See Origins and History of the organization)

When 1878 came to a close with the feet of believers still firmly planted on the earth, Russell was forced to look for answers. He eventually came to believe that not only was Christ's Second Coming invisible but the expected rapture could also have been unseen, i.e. the the dead in Christ were raised and ascended to heaven in 1878 - 3 & 1/2 years after Christ's supposed return.

He began to publish his own magazine - Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence (Emphasis Added) primarily aimed at proclaiming the message that Christ had already come. In fact, this was the main reason he got into the publishing business.

What is interesting to note is that Charles Taze Russell was so fascinated by the Great Pyramid of Gizeh that he looked to it for collaboration for his prophecies. William E. Van Amburgh, Secretary and Treasurer of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society from 1903 - 1947 believed the pyramid was the "Bible in stone". He actually claimed that the Great Pyramid confirmed the Bible's teaching that the time of Harvest had come. [11] See Footnote I

In 1877, Charles Russell made it clear that he believed Jesus had returned "in a spiritual body."

    "Some may have confounded our remarks on the presence of Christ in a spiritual body, with the presence of the spirit of Christ; but they are quite distinct. The latter never left the church; consequently in that sense He could not "come again." Of His spiritual presence He said: "Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world." We refer to the personal presence which did go away, and will come again - a spiritual body... we have Christ's own words to prove that He will be present in the world, and the world will know not of it. Matt. 24:37." [12]

In 1881 Russell who was apparently familiar with The Emphatic Diaglott (an interlinear translation of the New Testament that translated the Greek word parousia as 'presence' rather than 'coming' in Matthew 24:3 and other verses [13]) said

The Greek word parousia does not mean the act of coming, but the being present." He then went of to speak of "His Arrival" [14]

In 1916 he claimed,

    "... both the King and the Kingdom are not only coming, but are here..." [15]

Back Peddling On Christ's 'Presence'
It is beyond argument that Russell believed and taught that Jesus Christ's Second Coming took place in 1874. Yet, in the 1950s The Watchtower changed what Christ's "presence" meant..

    "...we should not even think of his (Christ) leaving heaven and coming within the confines of earth's atmosphere for him to be present. He returns or 'visits' the earth as did Jehovah in times past, by turning his attention to things of earth."  [16]

"Turning his attention to things of earth" is very different from being present "in a spiritual body" as Russell wrote.

Jesus Returned and Began Ruling in 1914
In the book What Does the Bible Really Teach? first copyrighted in 2005, the Witnesses point to a number of Biblical events that they say is "powerful testimony to the fact that 1914 indeed marked the birth of God's heavenly Kingdom and the beginning of "the last days" of this present wicked system of things".  [18]

See Jesus' Resurrection - Physical or Spiritual? in JW various Beliefs

So what happened to 1874?

1921 - The Harp of God written by Rutherford and published by Watch Tower publications in 1921 also maintained an 1874 date for Christ's return. But this time, although modern advances were presented as 'evidence' of the Lord's presence, they added that "gentile dominion" would not end until 1914.

     It was in the year 1874, the date of our Lord's second presence, that the first labor organization was created in the world. From that time forward there has been a marvelous increase of light and the inventions and discoveries have been too numerous for us to mention all of them here, but mention is made of some of those that have come to light since 1874, as further evidence of the Lord's presence. [19]

    It would be reasonable to expect him to be present some time before he would take unto himself his great power to reign. His presence beginning in 1874, he has carried on his harvest work from 1878 forward, but has not interrupted the gentile dominion until that dominion should end. The end of the gentile rule, therefore, would mark necessarily the end of the present order ; therefore, the end of the world. We should expect, then, to find 1914 as the beginning of the end of the old world or order of government. [20]

The Watch Tower, Golden Age, and Awake all affirmed that 1914 would see the beginning of the end.

In 1916 the Society claimed,

    "We see no reason for doubting, therefore, that the Times of the Gentiles ended in October, 1914; and that a few more years will witness their utter collapse and the full establishment of God's kingdom in the hands of Messiah" [20b].

In 1924, the Watchtower stated,

    when the World War broke out in 1914 ... it was a clear fulfillment of the prophetic utterances of the Lord concerning the end of the world. [21]

    The evidence which the Lord brought to bear from 1914 to 1918 in fulfillment of prophecy clearly showed that it marked his presence, the end of the world, and the time for the setting up of his kingdom. [22]

Several 1930 editions of the Golden Age had a great deal to say about the year 1914. For example

    The World 'War' of 1914 to 1918, and the associated incidents, mark the fulfillment of the prophecy concerning the end of the world. (Matt. 24: 7-22) That means that 1914 marked the time when the period of waiting would end and when the period of activity would begin against Satan and his organization. (February 5, 1930. Pg.93.)

    From the time of tragedy in Eden until 1914 God has permitted the Devil to put forth his greatest efforts to turn creation from Him. It was in 1914, in harmony with the words of His prophet that God said to His anointed One; 'Go forth now and rule in the midst of thine enemies (Ps. 110:1,2) Since that time the Lord has been putting His kingdom in operation. (February 5 1930. Pg. 317)

    ... we are told that the evidence of Christ's presence is the fact that the nations were angry, pointing again to the year 1914, when the whole world became angry, and the World War began. (April 30, 1930. Pg. 504)

    In 1914 Jehovah set His anointed One upon His throne; therefore at that time Christ-Jesus took His authority as King. Three

    and one-half years thereafter, to wit, in 1918, the Lord came to His temple, which is the temple of God. (December 24, 1930) [23]

In 1962 Awake! magazine made it clear that the word "generation" means a "literal generation"

    Bible prophecies indicate that Christ was installed as the King of God's heavenly kingdom in 1914. Without delay, the newly enthroned Potentate waged war against the Devil and his demons, resulting in their ouster from the heavens. (Rev. 12:7-9) The "generation" of Matthew 24:34 includes persons alive at the time that the war in heaven began in 1914. All who were living or who came on the scene around that time are part of that generation. Members of that generation will see the end of this world.

    It should be noted, however, that the world's end does not come after the end of that generation. It comes within that generation. Jesus himself said that the generation would not pass away "until all these things occur."

    Was Jesus using the word "generation" in a symbolic way? No, we should not say that the word "generation" here has a symbolic meaning ... The word "generation" at Matthew 24:34 is to be viewed in an ordinary sense... a literal generation. [24]

Note the words "The "generation" of Matthew 24:34 includes persons alive at the time that the war in heaven began in 1914."

The Importance Given The 1914 Date
In fact, the date was so significant that in the past, the organization claimed that

    ... Christendom's clergy refuse to take a stand for Jehovah's Kingdom by Jesus Christ. For failing to support it, they will be destroyed in the "great tribulation" just ahead. But unlike them, Jehovah's Witnesses have abandoned Babylon the Great, the world empire of false religion, and are preaching the Kingdom message in 203 lands. This unparalleled work is an outstanding feature of "the sign" proving that in 1914 Jesus was installed as heavenly King, to rule amid his enemies." [25]


    Approved association with Jehovah's Witnesses requires accepting the entire range of the true teachings of the Bible, including those Scriptural beliefs that are unique to Jehovah's Witnesses. What do such beliefs include? ... That 1914 marked the end of the Gentile Times and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the heavens, as well as the time for Christ's foretold presence.  [26]

The Harvest Season

Did The Harvest Season Commence in 1878 or 1919?
In 1918 and 1919 the Society was teaching that Christ returned in 1874 and the "harvest period" commenced in 1878.

    "...the harvest began in 1878, there is ample and convincing proof. The end of the harvest is due in the spring of 1918" [27]

    This brings us down to the opening of the seventh seal, which our dear Pastor has explained as referring to the unfolding of the light of present truth. This seventh seal, therefore, began to be opened about 1874 and continued to open throughout the harvest period as one by one the Scripture Studies were published. 

    The date of the second advent (A. D. 1874) is further corroborated by the distance from the court gate to the center of the Most Holy, which is 75 cubits or 1875 inches. This represents the exact number of years from the advent of Jesus in the flesh in B. C. 2 (see Vol. II, page 54) to the Second Advent of "the Lord from heaven" as a spirit being, invisible to mortal eyes, in A. D. 1874 - 1 Corinthians 15:47. [28]

However, in 1970 the Watchtower asserted that the "harvest period" began in 1919.

    weeds were permitted to grow along with the good seed during the intervening centuries until the time of harvest began in 1919 C.E. after Jesus' sign of the "last days" had commenced fulfillment in 1914. [29]

And this was far from the only 'adjustment'.

The Watchtower's Name Reflected The Doctrine Current at The Time
The Watch Tower magazine is entitled "The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom".  However, it wasn't always called that. The name was changed as their doctrine 'evolved'. (All Emphasis Added)

1879: When the magazine was first published in 1879 it was called Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence simply because its sole aim was to announce Christ's presence.  Although Zion was dropped from the title in 1909 [17], it called itself Herald of Christ's Presence through 1938.
Watchtower 1938 (602 x 204)

1939: Beginning on January 1st 1939 "Christ's Presence" was dropped from the title which then read - "The Watchtower and Herald of Christ's Kingdom".

Watchtower January 1939 (594 x 192)

Just three months later, on March 1st 1939 the Society changed the title to "The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom".

Watchtower March 1939 (598 x 182)

And that was not all. Somewhere along the line the Watchtower Society began teaching that Christ invisibly returned to earth in 1914, not 1874.


Armageddon Would End in 1914
The organization initially taught the "battle of the Great Day of God Almighty" (Armageddon) would end in 1914. Every kingdom of the world would be overthrown in 1914 which was "God's date" not for the beginning but "for the end" of the time of trouble. Charles Russell's book The Time Is At Hand, that was first published in 1889 by the Watch Tower Society, says,

 In view of this strong Biblical evidence concerning the Times of the Gentiles, we consider it an established truth that the final end of the kingdoms of this world, and the full establishment of the Kingdom of God, will be accomplished by the end of A.D. 1914" [30]

    ...the 'battle of the great day of God Almighty' (Rev. 16:14), which will end in A.D. 1914 with the complete overthrow of earth's present rulership, is already commenced" [31].

In 1894 the Watchtower confirmed that 1914 would be the end of the time of trouble and that this date was God's, not theirs.

    "CAN IT BE DELAYED UNTIL 1914?... our readers are writing to know if there may not be a mistake in the 1914 date. They say that they do not see how present conditions can last so long under the strain. We see no reason for changing the figures - nor could we change them if we would. They are, we believe, God's dates not ours. But bear in mind that the end of 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but for the end of the time of trouble" [32].

In 1962 Awake! magazine made it clear that the word "generation" means a "literal generation"

The "generation" of Matthew 24:34 includes persons alive at the time that the war in heaven began in 1914. All who were living or who came on the scene around that time are part of that generation. Members of that generation will see the end of this world. [33]

In 1984 The Watchtower specifically said that it was Jehovah's prophetic word that the 1914 generation would see 'the time of the end'

    Jehovah's prophetic word through Christ Jesus is: 'This generation [of 1914] will by no means pass away until all things occur.' (Luke 21:32) And Jehovah, who is the source of inspired and unfailing prophecy, will bring about the fulfillment of his Son's words in a relatively short time...

    Just as Jesus' prophecies regarding Jerusalem were fulfilled within the life span of the generation of the year 33 C.E., so his prophecies regarding 'the time of the end' will be fulfilled within the life span of the generation of 1914... Yes, you may live to see this promised New Order, along with survivors of the generation of 1914 - the generation that will not pass away. [34].

No, Wait a Minute! - Armageddon Would Begin in 1914
However, Armageddon did not begin in 1914 - World War I did. At the time the Society took the war to be the beginning of the final battle. The 1915 and 1916 issues of The Watchtower included the following statements,

    "The Battle of Armageddon, to which this war is leading, will be a great contest between right and wrong, and will signify the complete and everlasting overthrow of the wrong, and the permanent establishment of Messiah's righteous kingdom for the blessing of the world..." [35].

    In the meantime, our eyes of understanding should discern clearly the Battle of the Great Day of God Almighty now in progress; and our faith, guiding our eyes of understanding through the Word, should enable us to see the glorious outcome - Messiah's kingdom. [35b]

In one of his sermons preached around that time, Russell said the following,

    The present great war in Europe is the beginning of the Armageddon of the Scriptures. (Rev. 16:16-20.) It will eventuate in the complete overthrow of all the systems of error which have so long oppressed the people of God and deluded the world. All iniquity of every kind will go down. The glorious Kingdom of Messiah is about to be set up in the earth, for the deliverance of the world and the establishment of permanent righteousness. [36]

The 1917 Watchtower book, The Finished Mystery claimed that

"In the year 1918 God will destroy the churches wholesale and the church members by the millions. Any that escape shall come to the works of pastor Russell to learn the meaning of the downfall of 'Christianity.'" [37]

Needless to say none of this happened. Quite obviously, World War I did not lead to Armageddon, Christianity was not brought down and God didn't destroy the churches and church members. The Watchtower Online Library admits that

     Not all that was expected to happen in 1914 did happen, but it did mark the end of the Gentile Times and was a year of special significance. Many historians and commentators agree that 1914 was a turning point in human history. [38]

The 1914 Generation Would be The Last Generation Before Armageddon
Another prediction made the Watchtower Society was that the majority of people alive in 1914 would still be living when Armageddon took place. The Watchtower magazine spelled it out as follows:

1952: Some persons living A.D. 1914 when the series of foretold events began will also be living when the series ends with Armageddon. All the events will come within the span of a generation. There are hundreds of millions of persons living now that were living in 1914, and many millions of these persons could yet live a score or more years. Just when the lives of the majority of them will be cut short by Armageddon we cannot say. [39].

1962: As mentioned previously the following statement was included in Awake!

    "Was Jesus using the word 'generation' in a symbolic way? No, we should not say that the word "generation" here has a symbolic meaning... The "generation" of Matthew 24:34 includes persons alive at the time that the war in heaven began in 1914... Members of that generation will see the end of this world" [40].

Sorry We Got That Wrong - The 1914 Generation Meant Those Alive "With Understanding" in 1914.
In other words, only those who were old enough to both see and understand the events they witnessed in 1914 would live to see Armageddon.

    "Where Are We According to God's Timetable?... In examining these Scriptural facts, something else also captures our attention. According to Bible chronology, we are already over fifty-two years into the wicked system of things' 'time of the end.' That time began in the autumn of 1914 C.E., at the termination of the 'appointed times of the nations,' and it is already far advanced. Jesus said that 'this generation' that saw the beginning of this time period in 1914 would also see its end. The generation that was old enough to view those events with understanding in 1914 is no longer young. It no longer has many years to run. Already many of its members have died. But Jesus showed that there would still be members of 'this generation' alive at the time of the passing away of this wicked system of things in both heaven and earth. (Luke 21:32, 33) How much longer will it be, then, before God takes action to destroy the wicked and usher in the blessings of his Kingdom rule? [41]

    "Jesus said 'this generation will by no means pass away until all these things occur.' Which generation is this, and how long is it?... When it comes to the application in our time, the 'generation' logically would not apply to babies born during World War I. It applies to Christ's followers and others who were able to observe that war and the other things that have occurred in fulfillment of Jesus' composite 'sign.' Some of such persons 'will by no means pass away until' all of what Christ prophesied occurs, including the end of the present wicked system" [42]

Whoops! Our Original Statement Was More Accurate - Babies born in 1914 Will live to see Armageddon
by 1984 the teenagers who were alive in 1914 were at least 80 years old. This caused The Watchtower to once again change their position to include babies born in 1914 in their definition of generation. Using various Bible dictionaries and lexicons, they came to the conclusion that "generation" included "both those born around the time of a historic event and all those alive at that time." This bought them a few more years.

    "If Jesus used 'generation' in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of that generation are now 70 years old or older. And others alive in 1914 are in their 80's or 90's, a few even having reached a hundred. There are still many millions of that generation alive. Some of them 'will by no means pass away until all things occur.' - Luke 21:32" [43].

Never Mind! God's Kingdom Was Established in 1914, But...
From 1952 to 1995 (approx. 43 years) every two weeks Awake magazine's masthead said the following. (Note the added underlining)

    Why Awake! Is Published - Awake! is for the enlightenment of the entire family. It shows how to cope with today's problems. ... But it does more. It probes beneath the surface and points to the real meaning behind current events... Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away. [44].

In fact, it used these words over 20 times in the 1995 edition - that is until November 8, when the last line of the above quote was changed to

    Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator's promise of a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present wicked, lawless system of things. [45]

The word "generation" and the date "1914" were probably abandoned because someone realized that by 1995 even those born in 1914 would have been over 80 years old - in other words the vast majority of people alive in 1914 were dead of causes other than having their lives "cut short by Armageddon"

And Re-Interpret The Word 'Generation'
In 1995 the Watchtower also changed its interpretation of 'generation' to "people who see the sign of Christ's presence but fail to mend their ways"

    Eager to see the end of this evil system, Jehovah's people have at times speculated about the time when the 'great tribulation' would break out, even tying this to calculations of what is the lifetime of a generation since 1914. However we 'bring a heart of wisdom in' not by speculating about how many years or days make up a generation... Is anything to be gained, then, by looking for dates or by speculating about the literal lifetime of a 'generation'? Far from it!...

    Therefore, in the final fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy today, 'this generation' apparently refers to the peoples of earth who see the sign of Christ's presence but fail to mend their ways... Does our more precise viewpoint on 'this generation' mean that Armageddon is further away than we had thought? Not at all" [46]

The current teaching is that "God's Kingdom was established in 1914. Although it took complete control of heaven at that time it is yet to take complete control of the earth. [46b]

All of which brings us to one more date...

1925 and The Resurrection of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob etc.

In 1967 the Watchtower made the following statement,

    Interestingly, the autumn of the year 1975 marks the end of 6,000 years of human experience. This is ascertainable from reliable chronology preserved in the Bible itself. What will that year mean for humankind? Will it be the time when God executes the wicked and starts off the thousand-year reign of his Son Jesus Christ? It very well could, but we will have to wait to see. [47]

However, this date came up many years earlier. The Society made many prophecies and predictions regarding the year 2018 - none of which came to pass. Therefore it is no wonder that in a series of public lectures starting in 1918 Rutherford prophesied that the resurrection would commence in 1925, beginning with faithful men of old like Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all the others mentioned in Hebrews 11.

In what has been described as "one of the most successful meetings ever held by International Bible Students", Rutherford, the second president of the Society, addressed a very large crowd at the Hippodrome in New York on March 21,1920 at which he said

    "Now 1 am going to give you another date. The year 1914 stands out today emblazoned on the escutcheon of history as a date that can no longer be questioned by any one. And just so sure as we are here this afternoon you will see that another date will stand out just as prominently.

    And what date is that?

    I am not a prophet, but I reach this conclusion from a careful examination of the prophecies, and my only purpose in calling it to your attention today is that in this hour of stress, in this hour of suffering, in this hour of turmoil on the earth the people might turn their minds with hope to a day in the near future in which all the ills of humankind shall begin to be treated with divine remedy - and that date if you please is nineteen hundred twenty-five.” [48]

In fact, between 1918 and 1925 the main focus of the Watchtower's teachings was that 1925 would mark the return of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and other faithful ancients - something that many modern Jehovah's Witnesses seem to be unaware of.

Beth Sarim
The Jehovah's Witnesses were so sure of the resurrection of Old Testament Biblical patriarchs and prophets that the society (under Watchtower Beth SarinRutherford) bought and maintained a ten-bedroom mansion in San Diego, California naming it "Beth Sarim" - Hebrew for "House of the princes. They even planted palm and olive trees in the grounds to make it feel more like a 'home' that Abraham and the other resurrected 'princes' would be comfortable in.

    This was based on the extra-biblical idea that although Jesus will have "144,000 associate rulers in his capital, Zion" in heaven, there will be trusted administrators here on earth - "ancient men of faith who will be resurrected, and whom the King will "appoint as princes in all the earth.” [49]

When Beth-Sarim was sold in 1948, stipulations in the deeds that property was to be held "perpetually in trust" were ignored. The reason given for the sale was,

    "At the time, it was believed that faithful men of old times, such as Abraham, Joseph, and David, would be resurrected before the end of this system of things and would serve as 'princes in all the earth,' in fulfillment of Psalm 45:16. This view was adjusted in 1950, when further study of the Scriptures indicated that those earthly forefathers of Jesus Christ would be resurrected after Armageddon." [49b]

Read more HERE

Also See a copy of the deed obtained from the County Record Office, San Diego, California. THIS Page

The Watchtower Stressed the Accuracy of The 1925 Date
Please remember that the Watchtower claims to be God's SOLE Channel of Communication and that no man's opinion is expressed in its pages. (Quotes at the top of the page). Yet, from 1922 -1924 it stressed the accuracy of its chronology.

  • 1. it is an easy matter to locate 1925, probably the fall, for the beginning of the antitypical jubilee. There can be no more question about 1925 than there was about 1914. The fact that all the things that some looked for in 1914 did not materialize does not alter the chronology one whit. [50]
  • 2. When a date is indicated by several lines of evidence it is strongly established. ... and the addition of more proofs removes it entirely from the realm of chance into that of proven certainty. [51]
  • 3. The date 1925 is even more distinctly indicated by the Scriptures because it is fixed by the law God gave to Israel. Viewing the present situation in Europe, one wonders how it will be possible to hold back the explosion much longer; and that even before [52]
  • 4. Are those who oppose the conclusions of Brother Russell concerning chronology obeying this command of giving the witness? [53]
  • 5. Our thought is, that 1925 is definitely settled by the Scriptures, marking the end of the typical jubilees. Just exactly what will happen at that time no one can tell to a certainty; but we expect such a climax in the affairs of the world that the people will begin to realize the presence of the Lord and his kingdom power. [54]
  • 6. The year 1925 is a date definitely and clearly marked in the Scriptures, even more clearly than that of 1914 ; but it would be presumptuous on the part of any faithful follower of the Lord to assume just what the Lord is going to do during that year. [55]

The Golden Age echoed this...

    "We cannot be blamed for presenting from the Scriptures such evidence as they afford which leads us to believe that a certain event will take place at a given time. Some times the Lord has let His people looking for the right thing at the wrong time, and more frequently they have looked for the wrong things at the right time. But all the enemies of the cause of present truth in the earth are fervently hoping that the Bible students will not be so successful in 1925 in looking for the right thing at the right time as they were in 1914. If they are, however, it will be the other fellow that will have to do the explaining, and not we." [56]

Additionally several books written and/or published by leaders of the organization also pushed the 1925 date.

Millions Now Living Will Never Die:
In 1920, Rutherford published a book called Millions Now Living Will Never Die that taught this very thing,

    Therefore we may confidently expect that 1925 will mark the return of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the faithful prophets of old, particularly those named by the Apostle in Hebrews 11, to the condition of human perfection" [57]

The Harp of God
This topic was was again emphasized in Rutherford's book The Harp of God - Proof Conclusive That Millions Now Living Will Never Die was published in 1921 (Emphasis Added).

    Because Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the other faithful prophets described by the apostle Paul in Hebrews 11 are promised a better resurrection; because of the statement of the Prophet that they shall be princes or rulers in all the earth (Psalm 45:16), it is to be expected that they will be the first ones raised under the terms of the new covenant. Therefore it is reasonable to expect them to be back on earth at the beginning of the restoration blessings.

    Hence these faithful men may be expected on earth within the next few years. They will constitute the legal representatives of the Christ in the earth. They will be the visible representatives of the kingdom of heaven. These are the ones who shall administer the affairs of earth under the direction of the Lord. [58]

The Way to Paradise
In 1924, the children's book The Way to Paradise made a number of outlandish predictions for 1925. It was written by William E. Van Amburgh - Secretary and Treasurer of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society from 1903 - 1947. Amburgh was appointed by Charles Taze Russel and was one of only five members of the Watch Tower Editorial Committee qualified, as the Watch Tower said, "to approve as Truth of each and every article appearing in these columns." He wrote The Way to Paradise in 1924. The quotations below are from a 2005 reprint of the book.

    Christ will soon begin to deal with the world as individuals, commencing with the Jew first, through the ancient worthies. We should, therefore, expect shortly after 1925 to see the awakening of Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Melchisedec, Job, Moses, Samuel, David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, John the Baptist, and others mentioned in the eleventh chapter of Hebrews. [59]

    No doubt many boys and girls who read this book will live to see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Daniel, and those other men of old, come forth in the glory of their "better resurrection," perfect in mind and body. It will not take long for Christ to appoint them to their posts of honor and authority as his earthly representatives. The world and all the present conveniences will seem strange to them at first, but they will soon become accustomed to the new methods. They may have some amusing experiences at first; for they never saw telephones, radios, automobiles, electric lights, aeroplanes, steam engines, and many other things so familiar to us." [60]

Also See What Russell and Amburgh Had to Say About The Great Pyramid of Gizeh Footnote I

And there were some rather bizarre details about life in the Kingdom...

    "Of course it will take some time to get things in smoothly running order after the great stress between now and 1926. It may be ten years or more before you get your home all fixed up, and the gardens bringing forth the luscious fruits and appetizing vegetables in abundance.

    Even if it takes a while longer you will be that much better prepared. You will have secured the services of the best decorators you can find. Some of them used to be undertakers; but since there are no more people dying, they have had to seek some new occupation. Their experience as undertakers prepared them to become decorators with very little difficulty." [61]

However, when the prophecies failed to materialize in 1925, Rutherford immediately started back-peddling

    "How much of all this will come to pass in 1926 is not stated. At present we do not find any definite date beyond 1926 indicated in the Scriptures. When the Bible Students found 1914 in the Bible they heralded it far and wide, but the Lord left the curtain down at that date until we had reached it. God set his seal upon 1914, and the work started that year is still going on. We find the date 1925-1926 clearly indicated in the prophetic outline, and the Lord has not lifted the curtain sufficiently for us to see distinctly beyond... Let us learn from experiences of the past not to be too positive about details." [62]

And as said in an article on The Christian Research Institute

    But even before 1925 had ended, the Jehovah's Witness periodical Golden Age adjusted the prophecy, writing that "it is apparent that there are many peoples now on earth who may confidently hope to see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the other prophets back on earth within a few years" (emphasis added)

    The year after the 1925 failure Rutherford attended a convention in Basel, Switzerland, where he was asked, "Have the ancient worthies returned?” He answered that they had not and that "it would be foolish to make such an announcement.” Then, changing the wording, he said, "It was stated in the 'Millions' book that we might reasonably expect them to return shortly after 1925, but this was merely an expressed opinion; besides it is still shortly after 1925. There is no good reason why we should expect the ancient worthies to return until the church is complete and the work of the church on earth is done" [63](emphasis added).

2013 - A Complete Retraction of Previously Held Beliefs/Teachings

Raymond Franz was a member of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1980 he and another colleague urged the body to examine its teachings about 1914 which they responded to by ousting him from the Society. However, by the year 2013, things were coming to a head - 99 years had passed since 1914 and none of their prophecies had materialized. So the Watchtower Society finally decided to review their teachings concerning 1914 and what they then came up with flatly contradicted everything they had taught earlier.

"In review, what have we learned? In the beginning of this article, we raised three 'when' questions. We first considered that the great tribulation did not begin in 1914 but will start when the United Nations attacks Babylon the Great. Then, we reviewed why Jesus' judgment of the sheep and the goats did not begin in 1914 but will occur during the great tribulation. Finally, we examined why Jesus' arrival to appoint the faithful slave over all his belongings did not occur in 1919 but will take place during the great tribulation. So, then, all three 'whens' apply to the same future time period -  the great tribulation." [64]

Then, they spelled out:

    "In the past, we have stated in our publications that these last four references apply to Jesus' arriving, or coming, in 1918. As an example, take Jesus' statement about 'the faithful and discreet slave.' (Read Matthew 24:45-47.) We understood that the 'arriving' mentioned in verse 46 was linked to the time when Jesus came to inspect the spiritual condition of the anointed in 1918 and that the appointment of the slave over all the Master's belongings occurred in 1919. (Mal. 3:1) However, a further consideration of Jesus' prophecy indicates that an adjustment in our understanding of the timing of certain aspects of Jesus' prophecy is needed."  ...

    "In the verses that lead up to Matthew 24:46, the word "coming" refers consistently to the time when Jesus comes to pronounce and execute judgment during the great tribulation. (Matt. 24:30, 42, 44) Also, as we considered in paragraph 12, Jesus' 'arriving' mentioned at Matthew 25:31 refers to that same future time of judgment. So it is reasonable to conclude that Jesus' arrival to appoint the faithful slave over all his belongings, mentioned at Matthew 24:46, 47, also applies to his future coming, during the great tribulation. Indeed, a consideration of Jesus' prophecy in its entirety makes it clear that each of these eight references to his coming applies to the future time of judgment during the great tribulation." [65]

In other words, the Watchtower that once called itself the "Herald Of Christ's Presence" backtracked on its foundational doctrine and is now telling its readers that Christ did not return invisibly to earth in 1874 or in 1914, but He will return and execute judgment at some time in the future.

One would think they would shamefacedly slink away into a corner after profuse apologies. Not them. After admitting they were wrong on almost every aspect of their 1914, 1918, and 1919 teachings, they still claim that 1914  - 1919 is  significant.

    "Jesus began to inspect the spiritual temple in 1914. That inspection and cleansing work involved a period of time - from 1914 to the early part of 1919." [66]

If they admitted the years 1914, 1918, 1925 etc. had no special meaning, they would also be admitting that their group did not act as a "prophet" of God, they did not print "Jehovah's prophetic word", and they certainly were not God's "only channel of communication".

Footnote I
The Great Pyramid of Giza
Charles Taze Russell was so fascinated by the Great Pyramid of Gizeh that he looked to it for collaboration for his prophecies. In his Studies in the Scriptures series of books he wrote: (Emphasis Added)

"So, then, if we measure backward down the "First Ascending Passage" to its junction with the "Entrance Passage," we shall have a fixed date to mark upon the downward passage. This measure is 1542 inches, and indicates the year BC 1542, as the date at that point. Then measuring down the "Entrance Passage" from that point, to find the distance to the entrance of the "Pit," representing the great trouble and destruction with which this age is to close, when evil will be overthrown from power, we find it to be 3416 inches, symbolizing 3416 years from the above date, BC 1542. This calculation shows AD. 1874 as marking the beginning of the period of trouble; for 1542 years BC plus 1874 years AD. equals 3416 years. Thus the Pyramid witnesses that the close of 1874 was the chronological beginning of the time of trouble such as was not since there was a nation -- no, nor ever shall be afterward. And thus it will be noted that this "Witness" fully corroborates the Bible testimony on this subject..." [67]. 

"The Bible in Stone" ?
Amburgh also believed that the Great Pyramid of Giza was "The Bible in Stone". Beginning on page 156 of The Way to Paradise he wrote,

We stop here long enough to take a peep at the great pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt. It was built about f otir  (IPS Note: Unsure what this word is meant to be) hundred years after the flood. This great structure covers nearly thirteen acres, and is the most remarkable building in the world, in its location, its shape and its size, as well as in its interior chambers. Although it is very rough and unsightly on the outside now, when it was first built it Avas covered with polished marble and glistened in the sun like glass.

It is quite probable that Shem, the son of Noah, a faithful servant of God, was in charge of its construction.

In it have been discovered some of the deepest secrets of geometrical, geographical, astronomical, and mathematical science.

The pyramid also outlines in its own peculiar way the same plan of God that we find in the Bible, and it dated beforehand some of the most notable events that have occurred in the history of mankind. It gives the date of the exodus of the Children of Israel from Egypt, and the date of the birth and the death of Jesus.

It gives the date of the French revolution as 1789, and the great World War as 1914, besides many more. It was built over five hundred years before Moses wrote any part of the Bible, It is so far in advance of the wisdom of that day that no man could have been the architect. Its harmony with the Bible teachings prove that God designed it. Isaiah makes reference to it as follows: "In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the 'border thereof to Jehovah. 'And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto Jehovah of hosts in the land of Egypt" (Isaiah 19 : 19)

This pyramid has been called "The Bible in Stone," a very appropriate name. [68]

Continue on to Medical Quakery - Readers of The Golden Age/Consolation magazine were treated to a steady stream of erroneous and even bizarre health and medical advice. HERE


End Notes
[01] The Watchtower. October 15,1954 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/d/d8/W_E_19540000.pdf

[02] Awake!, 22 March 1993 Pg. 4. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/7/79/G_E_19930000.pdf

[03] The Watch Tower. November 1, 1931. Pg. 327. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/3/39/W_E_19310000.pdf

[04] The Watchtower. The Table Of The Great King. April 1, 1919, https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/94/W_E_19190000.pdf

[05] The Value of Right Association Through Congregational Meetings.

[06] The Watchtower. January 15, 1969. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/7/75/W_E_19690000.pdf

[07] The Watchtower. April 1972, They Shall Know That a Prophet Was Among Them. Pg. 197.

[08] Awake! 22 October 1995, Pg 4.https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/d/d2/G_E_19950000.pdf

[09] The Watchtower. Harvesttime? - Who Would Do The Feeding? https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2013532?q=1919+harvest&p=par

[10] The Watchtower 1909, October 1, 1909. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/3/3d/W_E_19090000.pdf

[10b] The Watchtower, March 1, 1966 Pg. 132. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/0/0e/W_E_19660000.pdf

[11] The Finished Mystery by Charles Taze Russell https://www.gutenberg.org/files/46016/46016-h/46016-h.html. Pg. 226

[12] Charles Russell. Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return,  1877, Pgs. 51-52.

[13] Seven Times - The Times of The Gentiles. https://pastorrussell.blogspot.com/2008/06/seven-timesthe-times-of-gentiles-in.html

[14] Zions Watch Tower. The Presence and the Harvest. June 1881. Pg.62. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/1/16/W_E_18810000.pdf'

[15] The Watchtower, Signs of The Presence of The King. July 1, 1916. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/0/00/W_E_19160000.pdf]

[16] The Watchtower. How Does Christ Come the Second Time? Feb 15,1955, pp. 102-103) https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1955121

[17] The Watchtower. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/3/3d/W_E_19090000.pdf

[18] The Watchtower. 1914 — A Significant Year in Bible Prophecy. https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1102005159

[19] The Harp of God.  First edition, published 1921. Pg. 234. http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Harp-of-God4.html

[20] ibid. Pg. 244.

[20b] The Watchtower, Sept 1, 1916 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/0/00/W_E_19160000.pdf

[21] The Watch Tower. February 15, 1924. Pg. 53. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/c/c3/W_E_19240000.pdf

[22] ibid. Pg. 56

[23] Golden Age, 1930. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/f/ff/G_E_19300000.pdf

[24] Awake!, September 22, 1962, Pg.27 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/9a/G_E_19620000.pdf

[25] God's Ministers Prove Their Qualifications. The Watchtower 9/1/85 p. 25 par. 15.
https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1985646?q=Matt.+24%3A14&p=par#h=19 6

[26] The Watchtower 4/1/86 p. 31. 

[27] The Watchtower. May 1, 1918. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/7/73/W_E_19180000.pdf

[28] The Watchtower. April. 15, 1919. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/94/W_E_19190000.pdf

[29] The Watchtower. What is the meaning of Jesus' harvest parable? 

[30] Charles Taze Russell, The Time is at Hand, Pg. 99. https://archive.org/details/TheTimeIsAtHandByCharlesTazeRussell/page/n99/mode/2up?q=full+establishment+of+the+Kingdom

[31] Ibid., Pg. 101

[32] The Watch Tower, 15 July 1894, Pg. 73.  https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/e/e7/W_E_18940000.pdf

[33] Awake!, September 22, 1962, Pg.27 [https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/9a/G_E_19620000.pdf

[34] The Watchtower, 15 May 1984, Pgs. 6-7; brackets in original). 1914? - The Generation That Will Not Pass Away.
https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1984361. OR see https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/3/35/W_E_19840000.pdf

[35] The Watchtower, Apr 1, 1915 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/6/60/W_E_19150000.pdf

[35b] The Watchtower. September 1, 1916. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/0/00/W_E_19160000.pdf

[36] Pastor Russell's Sermons. Pg. 678. http://www.theocraticcollector.com/Pastor_Russells_Sermons_1917.pdf

[37] Charles Taze Russell. The Finished Mystery. Publisher: BiblioLife (November 1, 2008). Pg. 485. Note: This version is a pre-1923 historical reproduction.

[38] Jehovah's Witnesses in the Twentieth Century. Their Modern Development and Growth. https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1101989001

[39] The Watchtower, September 1, 1952, Pg. 543. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/97/W_E_19520000.pdf

[40] Awake!, September 22, 1962, Pg.27 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/9a/G_E_19620000.pdf

[41] Watchtower, 1 May 1967, Pg.262; https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/c/cd/W_E_19670501.pdf

[42] The Watchtower, 1 October 1978, Pg. 31. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/d/d0/W_E_19781001.pdf

[43] The Watchtower, 15 May 1984, Pg. 293. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/3/35/W_E_19840000.pdf

[44] Awake!, October 22, 1995. Page 4, https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/d/d2/G_E_19950000.pdf

[45] ibid

[46] The Watchtower, 1 November 1995, Pgs.17-20. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/97/W_E_19951101.pdf

[46b] The Watchtower 2020. Are You Awaiting "the City Having Real Foundations"?

[47] The Watchtower. 1967. Pg.6. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/c/cd/W_E_19670501.pdf

[48] The Watchtower April 15 1920. New York Hippodrome Meeting. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/9/9b/W_E_19200000.pdf

[49] The Watchtower. "Look! I Am Making All Things New".

[49b] Jehovah's Witnesses: Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1101993008

[50] The Watch Tower. July 15 1922.  Pg. 150 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/8/8a/W_E_19220000.pdf.

[51] ibid. Pg. 217

[52] ibid. Pg. 262

[53] ibid. Pg. 329

[54] The Watch Tower April 1. 1923 Pg. 106 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/1/1d/W_E_19230000.pdf

[55] The Watchtower. July 15, 1924. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/c/c3/W_E_19240000.pdf

[56] Golden Age 1924 Feb 13 Pg. 314. https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/c/c4/G_E_19240000.pdf

[57] J. F Rutherford. Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 1st Edition (1920) Publisher: International Bible Students Association. Pg. 89-90

[58] J. F. Rutherford. The Harp of God: Proof Conclusive That Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (June 28, 2016) Pgs. 372.  Full text available online at https://www.fulltextarchive.com/pdfs/The-Harp-of-God.pdf

[59] W. E. Van Amburgh. The Way to Paradise. Publisher: Lulu.com (December 15, 2005) Pg. 224]. Text available online at

[60] ibid. Pgs. 226-227

[61] ibid. Pg. 228

[62] The Watch Tower.  Feb 15 1925. Pg. 58 https://faithleaks.org/wiki/documents/a/a8/W_E_19250000.pdf

[63] Edmond C. Gruss and Leonard Chretien. Christian Research Institute. Beth-Sarim. Jun 9, 2009.

[64] The Watchtower, July, 2013, "Tell Us, When Will These Things Be?". https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2013530

[65] ibid.

[66] Watchtower, July, 2013, "Look! I Am With You All the Days". https://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2013531

[67] Charles Taze Russell, Thy Kingdom Come, Studies In The Scriptures, vol. 3, 1904 edition

[68] W. E. Van Amburgh. The Way to Paradise. Publisher: Lulu.com (December 15, 2005). Text available online at
http://www.archive.org/stream/TheWayToParadise/1924_The_Way_To_Paradise_djvu.txt. Pg. 156-170


Index To Cults