Section 10A .. The Contemporary Church


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Part V - Tongues, Gift of The Spirit? - What Spirit?

 Carol Brooks

Edited by Vicki Narlee

Index To All Six Sections

Ch. 1. Tongues - Introduction: Deception in The Church. The Holy Spirit in The Old and New Testaments. The 'Second Blessing' and the 'Initial Evidence' doctrine. The Controversy and It's Importance

Ch. 2. Tongues In The Gospels and Acts: The Purpose of Tongues in The New Testament. Mark 16:17. Speaking in Tongues in The Book of Acts. Pentecost - Distinguishing Factors. What All Three Occurrences Had in Common. Not Everyone Spoke in Tongues On Pentecost. Was the Spirit Given Before Pentecost?

Ch. 3. Tongues In Corinthians: The overall message of 1 Corinthians 14. Disregarding Most of What Paul Said About The Gift of Tongues. How Important Were Tongues in The New Testament?

Ch. 4.  Tongues - A Known Language?: A Known Language or Unintelligible Utterances on and after Pentecost. Unknown Languages or Ecstatic Speech?. Tongues of Angels? Ignoring Matthew 6:7

You Are Here 001orange Ch. 5. Tongues - What Spirit?: Neither Tongues nor Erratic Movements are Restricted to Born Again Christian Believers. How Did a Different Spirit Infiltrate The Church? - A Brief History of Pentecostalism May Provide The Answer. Voodoo. Circumstantial Evidence? Common Signs of Demon Possession. Comparing the Lwa with New Testament Demonic Possession.

Ch. 6. Tongues - Conclusion: According to The Bible Who Receives God's Holy Spirit? According to The Bible How Does One Receive God's Spirit? What It Means To Have The Spirit of God Dwelling In Us. The Gifts of The Spirit. Why People Don't Speak In Tongues?



Glossolalia is NOT Restricted to Born Again Christian Believers
 Pagans and heretical christian movements in the ancient past spoke in tongues. Non-christian religions and heretical 'Christian' sects
in the modern world speak in tongues without, apparently ANY difference

Erratic Movements are NOT Restricted to Born Again Christian Believers
In fact, if you watch the videos, you will see that the movements are exactly the same.

A Different Spirit?
What every Christian probably already knows, but rarely seems to take seriously, is the fact that not every spirit is of God

But How Did This Spirit Infiltrate the Church?
Every occult practice is introduced into the church by one person or a small group of people who will open the floodgates.

A Brief History of Pentecostalism May Provide The Answer

An ancient religion practiced by some 30 million people in the West African nations of Benin, Togo, and Ghana. But what, if anything, has any of this to do with modern Pentecostalism?

Circumstantial Evidence?
if it looks like a duck, walks and sounds like a duck - we would be very foolish to arbitrarily dismiss the possibility that it is a duck.

Common Signs of Demon Possession
The Emotionally Charged Setting + the Similarities in sound and movement.

Comparing the Lwa with New Testament Demonic Possession
Are They Fallen Angels?


But here is something I don't get -

Tongues Are NOT Restricted to Born Again Christian Believers
If tongues is the initial evidence of Christian believers being filled with the Holy Spirit, then I have absolutely no idea how anyone can explain the fact that speaking in an unknown language is known among pagans. Can any Christian believe for one moment that God has bestowed the gift of the Holy Spirit on Christians, non-Christians, cults, and pagans without any discrimination whatsoever.

In The Ancient Past: Pagans and Heretical Christian Movements

And this is not a modern phenomena, but was well known in antiquity. Not only was the ancient Oracle of Delphi (Footnote I) said to have spoken in 'ecstatic speech', but

    Herodotus (Lombard 1910:90) speaks of an inspired priest in Greece who suddenly spoke in a barbarian language, and Virgil in the Aeneid (1953:vi. 44-49, 97-99) tells of a Cumaean sibyl who spoke strangely while possessed. The Old Testament (Lombard 1910:89) alludes to a form of ecstatic behavior similar to glossolalia. Guillaume (1938:144-45) states that in 853 B.C. four hundred prophets raved in ecstasy before the gate of Samaria, and in ancient Egypt (Erman 1894: 352-55) necromancers uttered formulas, believed to be revelations from the gods, made up of foreign words and senseless noises. The more mysterious and incomprehensible these formulas were, the greater their power was thought to be.  [11]

The Montanists: Tongues also occurred among heretical Christian sects like the Montanists. Montanus (156-172) claimed to have received a series of direct revelations from the Spirit. He and his two prophetesses, Maximilla and Priscilla, "spoke in ecstatic trance-like states and urged their followers to fast and pray, so that they might share these personal revelations." [12] According to the early church historian Eusebius, 

    He became possessed of a spirit, and suddenly began to rave in a kind of ecstatic trance, and to babble in a jargon, prophesying in a manner contrary to the custom of the Church which had been handed down by tradition from the earliest times.” [13]

Note that Tertullian, one of the few early church leaders who referred to speaking in tongues, was at one point a follower of Montanus

In The Modern World: Non-Christian Religions and Heretical 'Christian' Sects ...
According to The Association of Religion Data Archives, over 2% of people from other religions have spoken in tongues. [14] Far from being a uniquely Christian practice, glossolalia is practiced by a large number of native non-Christian living religions around the world, including African tribal religions and

    the Peyote cult among the North American Indians, the Haida Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Shamans in the Sudan, the Shango cult of the West Coast of Africa, the Shago cult in Trinidad, the Voodoo cult in Haiti, the Aborigines of South America and Australia, the Eskimos of the subarctic regions of North America and Asia, the Shamans in Greenland, the Dyaks of Borneo, the Zor cult of Ethiopia, the Siberian shamans, the Chaco Indians of South America, the Curanderos of the Andes, the Kinka in the African Sudan, the Thonga shamans of Africa, and the Tibetan monks” [15]

Yoga and Kundalini: Beginning at the 45:15 mark a young man who attended Hindu guru's Rajneesh's dynamic meditation sessions spoke of people speaking in tongues. See "kundalini" video below.

Voodoo (These three pages (1) (2) (3) speak of voodoo participants speaking in tongues. Obviously these links could disappear at any time).

In a large scale survey conducted about three years ago (2013) the Pew Forum uncovered the interesting fact that 24% of Orthodox and 18% of Catholic responders claim to have spoken in tongues, as did 11% of Mormons and 8% of Jehovah's witnesses. [16].

The Shakers were a radical fringe sect founded in 1758 that bore little, if any, resemblance to orthodox Christianity. In fact, they felt a spiritual connection with the Montanists, considering them to have been the "forerunners of a new dispensation". Worship services were not only characterized by singing and dancing, shaking and shouting, but also contained "speaking with new tongues and prophesying" [17]

Catholic "Saints":
Tongues was known among some Catholic "saints", and in fact, is commonly used among Catholic Charismatics  See Footnote II

The Mormons
References to tongues are scattered throughout the pages of Mormon history. In one instance, it was even claimed that The gift of tongues came them "like the rushing of a mighty wind". In another instance, Joseph Smith said the tongues spoken by Brigham Young was "was the pure Adamic language"  See Footnote III

Is There Any Difference?
The question then becomes - is there any difference between the tongues of Christians, non-Christians and various cults?

Apparently not!

Felicitas D. Goodman, a psychological anthropologist and linguist, engaged in a study of various English, Spanish, and Mayan-speaking Pentecostal communities in the United States and Mexico. After comparing tape recordings of non-Christian rituals from Africa, Borneo, Indonesia and Japan, she concluded that there is no distinction in glossolalia between Christians and the followers of non-Christian (pagan) religions... "In fact, it has been found that the "speaking in tongues" practiced in Christian churches and by individual Christians is identical to the chanting language of those who practice voodoo on the darkest continents of this world" [18]

But there is more.

Erratic Movements are NOT Restricted to Born Again Christian Believers
It is not only the vocalizations, but the body movements that have to be compared. Pay close attention to how similarly people in a trance behave, regardless of whether they are in a Hindu meditation session, a voodoo ritual, or a Pentecostal meeting somewhere in the world. Be warned.. most of these videos are very disturbing.

In the following video about a Hindu Guru using mind control to brainwash a large crowd. The vigorous breathing and hyper ventilation is designed to arouse the serpent force called Kundalini, which the gurus believe lies coiled in the base of the spine. Pay attention to the screaming that starts around the 50 second mark.


Now listen to the African woman screaming in the first 3-4 seconds of this video. However, you also need to pause it every second in order to clearly see the expression of sheer terror on her face.


If we cannot attribute these people's experience to the working of the Holy Spirit, then how can we attribute the experiences in so many Pentecostal churches to the Holy Spirit. Although you cannot see the faces of the participants, the horrible screaming in the first few seconds of the next video apparently taken at some Pentecostal church, is virtually identical to that of the African woman and the people screaming in the Kundalini video.


If you really believe the  people in the 'Christian' church were 'blessed' by the Holy Spirit of God, you have been hopelessly deceived. When the screaming sounds like someone being tortured to death, what is controlling them is not the Holy Spirit of God whose fruit, according to Galatians 5:22, is love, joy, and peace among other things.

Here are three other videos from around the world that show the kind of behavior that often happens when the so called "holy" spirit descends...

Pentecostal - Women In India


Pentecostal - Sri Lankan Women - Watch the entire video if you can but especially the women rolling around on the floor beginning around the 2:10 mark.


Pentecostal Meeting... Presumably Somewhere in the US. Watch the person sitting in the front row in a white shirt and, very disturbingly, the woman wearing a pale pink suit that you first see from around the 2:30 mark,


Kundalini Awakening
Again compare what you saw and heard in the Pentecostal church videos with a spontaneous kundalini awakening. Watch the man's movements and the sounds he makes in the first minute of this video. Again note his 'collapse' at about the 2:50 mark


A Different Spirit?
What every Christian probably already knows, but rarely seems to take seriously, is the fact that not every spirit is of God... and those that aren't of God are against Him, and extremely dangerous to us. So why exactly are we not testing every spirit that presents itself as a gift of the Father? Why are we taking every phenomenon at face value?  Why are we ignoring the early apostles who warned that false apostles and Satan himself are masters of deception (2 Corinthians 11:13-15), and we should "not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God".  (1 John 4:1)

In his Epistle to the Corinthians, Paul issued a three sided warning, that is extremely relevant to this subject.

    For if one comes and preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached, or you receive (Gr. lambano) a different spirit which you have not received (Gr. lambano), or a different gospel which you have not accepted, you bear this beautifully. (2 Corinthians 11:4 NASB)

It is significant that the word lambano translated 'receive' is exactly the same word used for the receiving of God's Holy Spirit as in the following examples.

    Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received (Gr. lambano) from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear.  (Acts 2:33 NASB)

    Peter said to them, "Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive (Gr. lambano) the gift of the Holy Spirit. (Acts 2:38 NASB)

Paul spoke of a different Jesus (as opposed to the real Jesus) and a different Gospel (as opposed to the genuine Gospel), but also warned against receiving a different spirit (as opposed to the real Holy Spirit).

In other words, a demonic spirit.

It is entirely possible that the allure of receiving some form of deeper spiritual experience has deceived countless millions into accepting this spirit.

The church that should have been a bulwark against evil has, with apostate leaders and a Biblically illiterate population, adopted practices that are DIRECTLY derived from the occult. In fact, it would not far off the truth to say that the contemporary church is the devil's playground, and he has us cheerfully walking labyrinths, indulging in contemplative prayer, being 'slain in the spirit', and ordering God around as if He were a celestial page boy. We are so busy congratulating ourselves on how "spiritual" we have become, that we little suspect that we have actually lost all rights to call ourselves "Christians". As Einstein once said "Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former". See The Contemporary Church

But How Did This Spirit Infiltrate the Church?
What is very certain is that Yoga, Kundalini, Voodoo, and many other occult practices have exactly the same spirit behind them that manifests itself in very much the same way.

 What is to be noted however, is that the spirits themselves don't get a hold of an entire congregation and teach them Biblically indefensible practices. Every occult practice is introduced into the church by one person or a small group of people who have been led astray and will open the floodgates.

For instance, Contemplative prayer was begun by the Catholic 'desert fathers'. The practice of walking labyrinths was pretty much kicked off by two women - Jean Houston and Dr. Lauren Artress, priest at the new-age-friendly Grace Episcopal Cathedral in San Francisco. See Walking The Labyrinth

All the phenomenon that takes place in modern Pentecostal churches came about fairly recently. In fact, if one reads Pentecostal history, it is almost impossible not to draw the conclusion that the erratic phenomena originated with voodoo brought over to America by the African slaves.

Brief History of Pentecostalism
The Four Waves
Although it is disputed by some, Pentecostalism is said to have spread in four 'waves'.

Although it is close to impossible to identify a single founder of modern Pentecostalism, many historians have nominated Methodist minister Charles Parham of Bethel College in Kansas as being the single most influential factor in the movement. It is he who apparently initiated the first 'wave' in 1901.

The second wave is said to have been the movement begun by Dennis Bennett, rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California. The third the Catholic Charismatic Renewal movement that began in February 1967. The fourth 'wave' was started in 1987 by John Wimber at Fuller Theological Seminary. See Details Footnote IV

However, this history skips over a very important step.

Charles Parham
Parham was influenced by the preaching of Frank W. Sandford, founder of the Holy Ghost and US Bible School in Maine. While he might have believed that tongues was evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit, it is very clear that he also believed that the gift of tongues was the ability to speak in known languages. A said by the Assemblies of God...

    As Parham's theology of baptism in the Holy Spirit evolved, he concluded that recipients would form an elite band of end-times missionaries with supernatural power to evangelize the world. In fact, "missionary tongues" not only resolved the evidence question of the Pentecostal baptism, but bestowed immediate readiness for missionaries by eliminating their need to spend months or years in language school before they could preach in their countries of service. [19]

According to The Gospel Coalition, on the night of January 1, 1901, at her request, Parham placed his hands on 29-year-old Agnes Ozmen who had graduated from the freshly founded Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas. He prayed that she would receive baptism by the Holy Spirit after which witnesses reported that Miss Ozmen spoke and wrote only in Chinese for the next three days. [20]

If this truly happened, it was in line with Charles Parham's belief that tongues was a known language. So the multi million dollar question is where the unintelligible speech, the howling and screaming, the shaking, jerking and falling over came from?

The answer may very well lie with a quiet listener to Parham's messages.

William Seymour & The Azusa Street Revival
According to the New World Encyclopedia [Emphasis Added]

In 1905, Parham started preaching in Texas and began a Bible College in Houston, where a black preacher named William Joseph Seymour, a son of freed slaves, was required to listen to Parham's lectures outside the classroom through a half-opened door. In spite of this act of racism, Seymour became convinced of Parham's views. The leadership of the movement was soon to pass to Seymour and take on international dimensions.

In 1906, Seymour spearheaded the watershed of the Pentecostal movement in the U.S. and the world - The Azusa Street Revival. It began on April 9 in Los Angeles, California, at the home of Edward Lee. Seymour claimed that he was overcome with the Holy Ghost on April 12, 1906. On April 18, the Los Angeles Times ran a front page story on the revival, headlined: "Weird Babel of Tongues. New Sect of Fanatics Is Breaking Loose. Wild Scene Last Night on Azusa Street. Gurgle of Wordless Talks by a Sister."

By the third week in April, the small but growing congregation rented an abandoned African Methodist Episcopal Church at 312 Azusa Street and subsequently became organized as the Apostolic Faith Mission. [21]

There were accounts of "Fire-Baptized" revivals that predated the Azusa Street revival (1906-1909) For example, Maria Woodworth-Etter began her ministry in 1880. However, she was called the "trance evangelist" because when people "received the power" as she called it, they usually fell over in trances. Although one can argues that even falling over is completely unbiblical, it was yet a far cry from the phenomenon that took place at Azusa Street where people truly ran amuck, indulging in shockingly bizarre behavior

In fact, it was Azusa Street that "changed the religious landscape", becoming "most significant revival of the century in terms of global perspective". [22] Some of the features that characterized Azusa Street were outlined in a 1906 newspaper account... (Emphasis Added)

    In September 1906 a local newspaper reporter frowned on the events taking place and wrote that the Azusa Street mission was a "disgraceful intermingling of the races... they cry and make howling noises all day and into the night. They run, jump, shake all over, shout to the top of their voice, spin around in circles, fall out on the sawdust blanketed floor jerking, kicking and rolling all over it. Some of them pass out and do not move for hours as though they were dead. These people appear to be mad, mentally deranged or under a spell. They claim to be filled with the spirit. [23]

Within a few years, William J. Seymour's 'Azusa Street Revival' had "elevated supposed manifestations of the Holy Spirit to such a level that even Parham believed they were demonic. [24]

Parham also hit the nail on the head when he said that Pentecostals took all the phenomena to be from God, because they believed He would prevent them from being deceived by a false spirit.  (All Emphasis Added) 

    Hear this: three-fourths of the so-called Pentecosts in the world are counterfeits, the devil's imitation to deceive the poor earnest souls... Many hundreds, in seeking Pentecost, were taught to yield to any force, as God would not permit them to be misled; under those conditions they were ripe for hypnotic influence... Two-thirds of the people professing Pentecost are either hypnotized or spook-driven, being seized in the first place with a false spirit or coming under the control of one afterward. We cannot be too careful to try or test the spirits and any person unwilling to have their experience tested by going to God for themselves or with the brethren, reveal the fact that they are demon-controlled. [25]

And the movement spread very rapidly, both in this country and far beyond it's borders.

    From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tennessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches [26]

    "... within two years the movement had spread to over fifty nations, including Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, Holland, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, South Africa, Hong Kong, China, Ceylon and India. Christian leaders visited from all over the world [27]

So perhaps it would be fair to say that it was Azusa street, not Charles Parham, that jump-started the modern day version of Pentecostalism - a version that Charles Parham himself considered a "freak imitation of Pentecost".

Common sense dictates that if Parham believed that the gift of tongues was the ability to speak in known languages, then there had to be some other influence in William Joseph Seymour's life that led directly to Azusa street and could account for the jerking, twitching, falling on the floor and babbling etc.

And so there was.

Voodoo -
Voodoo is an ancient religion practiced by some 30 million people in the West African nations of Benin, Togo, and Ghana. According to National Geographic

    The exact origins of voodoo are unknown, but it's generally agreed that its roots lie in West Africa. The nation of Benin, once known as Dahomey, is considered the cradle of voodoo, which means "spirit" in the local language. [28]

One Inaccessible God
Many, if not most, followers of voodoo (Vodouisants) are monotheistic and believe in a single, supreme deity is known as Bondye - from the French bon (good) and Dieu (God). In fact, although the majority of Haitians are Catholic, they also practice Vodou (the most common spelling in Haiti) and commonly believe that because God is very busy with all that is going on, He has assigned power to certain spirits known as ...

Lwa (or Loa)
Although the Lwa are not gods, they are said to be distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes who can aid people in certain aspects of their life. In fact, because the relationship tends to be a reciprocal one, "believers provide food and other items that appeal to the Lwa in exchange for their assistance" [29] Animal sacrifices are sometimes woven into the rituals as as offerings to these spirits..

"The Lwa are frequently invited to possess a believer during ritual so that the community can directly interact with them" [30]. In fact because possession by the Lwa is the primary object of the voodoo ritual, drumming that facilitates a trance state is an integral part of the ceremony.  Practitioners will dance to intense drumming that, more often than not, will result in the Lwa entering a person's body.

See photographs of a ceremony in Benin, West Africa. on THIS page

But what, if anything, has any of this to do with William Seymour and modern Pentecostalism?
From Benin to Haiti and Louisiana
The Kingdom of Dahomey, later renamed "The People's Republic of Benin", was a powerful west African state founded in the seventeenth century. It survived until 1894, then became part of French West Africa. The entire region become known as the slave coast because it was at the center of the transatlantic slave trade for centuries. As to how voodoo came to Louisiana

    The French were, for a time, the major slave exporters from the Benin region. On the other side of the Atlantic the French only had two major colonies that imported slaves (not counting an assortment of small Caribbean Islands); Saint-Domingue (now called Haiti) and la Louisiane. Therefore, it is not surprising that Voodoo is particularly recognized in these two former French colonies. [31]

(Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV of France. However it is only a small portion of the vast lands originally claimed by the French).

And it cannot be particularly surprising that the African slaves brought their beliefs and practices with them. However, there were phases in the development of Voodoo in Louisiana. The first was during the African period - from 1719 to around 1830. The following information was originally found on the web site of the Voodoo Museum in New Orleans that apparently doesn't exist any more. Luckily some of the original content has been duplicated on other sites.

    Their language was African, their dances African, and their practices African. With the exception of merging and mixing with other African cultures, Voodoo would have been very much as it was in Africa. In 1808 a United States law forbade the import of slaves from outside the United States which eventually, a generation later, cut off the direct influence of African ways. [32]

William Seymour and The Golden Era Of Voodoo In New Orleans
The later Creole Phase, which lasted from about 1830 to around 1930, was called the golden era of voodoo in New Orleans. During this period, there were numerous changes such as the African languages giving way to French, the rise of Voodoo Queens, the merging with other celebrations like Mardi Gras etc. However, that does not mean that Voodoo, as it was traditionally practiced in Africa, died out completely. In fact, when have you ever heard of demonic spirits letting a person, or even an entire culture, go without a fight.

William Joseph Seymour was born the son of slaves in Centerville, St. Mary's Parish, Louisiana on the 2nd of May 1870, and was said to have been baptized in the Roman Catholic Church in Franklin, Louisiana. Most slaves were freed by about 1865 and Seymour is reported to have attended a freedman school in Centerville where he learned how to read and write. Fleeing both poverty and oppression, He left southern Louisiana in early adulthood. [33]

In other words, Seymour spent his formative years in Louisiana, at the time that was known as the golden era of Voodoo in New Orleans.

Circumstantial Evidence?
In many court cases, prosecutors often present what is called "circumstantial evidence' that indirectly points toward the accused's guilt, but does not conclusively prove it. This often makes it very difficult for juries to render a guilty 'beyond reasonable doubt' verdict. However, their task becomes considerably easier if there is actually physical evidence (like DNA) that links the defendant to the crime.

In the case of Voodoo and Pentecostalism I understand that the evidence presented so far is circumstantial, i.e  it does not conclusively 'prove' a link between voodoo and Pentecostalism.

Until, of course, you examine the DNA.

There are some very telling and very frightening parallels between what takes place during a Voodoo ritual and what takes place in many Pentecostal churches. Although some will argue that the similarities do not prove they originate from the same source, if it looks like a duck, walks and sounds like a duck - we would be very foolish to arbitrarily dismiss the possibility that it is a duck.

Common Signs of Demon Possession
The Desire to Have The Experience
Those who have the experiences generally desire to have them.

In Haitian voodoo, it is considered desirable to be possessed by the Lwa. In fact, this is usually the whole point of the ritual. 

Pentecostals believe God wants them to be baptized by the Holy Spirit and expect the manifestations to occur. And while it is not the point of all Pentecostal gatherings, it certainly is the primary reason for 'Tarry Meetings'

The Emotionally Charged Setting
Trance states are not all that difficult to achieve.

In voodoo, the intense drumming serve to whip the participants into more and more frenzied dancing that eventually results in a trance state that facilitates the Lwa' entry into their body.

In church settings, the atmosphere is typically emotionally charged. There is usually a time of singing which, in itself, can put the participants into an almost euphoric state. Because most of the congregants typically believe accept the preacher to be an 'anointed' servant of God who can facilitate the experience, those who are already in a highly suggestible state of mind are usually very receptive to exhortations from the leader to 'accept' the Holy Spirit. And, as happens in so many cases, when the preacher begins shouting and yelling, speaking in tongues, and calling the Holy Spirit down, the atmosphere begins to get super-charged.

The Similarity of Sounds
Another sign is when the possessed person begins speaking in an undecipherable 'language'.

    During a Voodoo ceremony, the primary object is for the participants to become possessed by the spirits by means of the music and dancing. Upon being possessed, evidence of this effect is given by the demonstration of the person's speaking in nonsensical syllables, (like speaking in tongues), or the undecipherable "language" of the Voodoo spirits. [34]

However, as stated earlier, it has been found that the "speaking in tongues" practiced in Christian churches and by individual Christians is identical to the chanting language of those who practice voodoo on the darkest continents of this world . 

The Similarity of Movement
But here is where it get really creepy.

When a Lwa enters a person there is at least one, and possibly two distinct signs that possession has taken place, the first of which is that the possessed person gets into an uncontrolled frenzy. According to anthropologist Harold Courlander, who specialized in the study of African, Caribbean, Afro-American (U.S.), and Native American cultures and is the author of 35 books and plays, and numerous scholarly articles,

    Almost without exception, the beginnings of a loa possession are marked by "trembling, by a kind of frenzy without controls or direction. (The person being possessed) may stagger, fall, and go into convulsions." [35]

Someone who experiences a full-on 'Kundalini Awakening' can display many of the same erratic movements. Watch the man's movements and the sounds he makes in the first minute of THIS video. 

As said in THIS video by Andrew Strom, one of the very clear signs of a Kundalini awakening are the "Kriyas" - involuntary jerking motions. This is seen from about the 6:15 mark.

Comparing the Lwa with New Testament Demonic Possession
The New Testament provides substantial evidence that the Lwa are nothing but demons masquerading as intermediaries between humans and the Supreme deity. Harold Courlander (cited earlier) also spoke of another of the Lwa's tendencies.

    Sometimes possessed persons also exhibit self-destructive tendencies. "Loa will cause their 'horses' to rub hot pepper into their eyes. Still others will compel possessed persons to cut themselves with machetes." At times possessed persons have to be restrained from throwing themselves into deep water. [36] 

While this does not find a parallel in Pentecostalism, it certainly finds one in the New Testament when a man came to our Lord with a plea...

    "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is a lunatic and is very ill; for he often falls into the fire and often into the water. "I brought him to Your disciples, and they could not cure him." And Jesus answered and said, "You unbelieving and perverted generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I put up with you? Bring him here to Me." And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon came out of him, and the boy was cured at once. (Matthew 17:15-18 NASB)

It is hardly surprising that Francis Huxley, a British anthropologist, relates isolated instances in which loa prohibit people from going to church and forbid them to "hear the words of the Gospel." This in spite of "the peaceful co-existence that seems to exist between Roman Catholicism and voodoo". [37] He goes on to say that the antagonism is more pronounced with Protestantism. Surprise! surprise!

    Nazarene missionary Paul Orjala tells of loas who "speak directly to the Christian through the person possessed and argue their right to do their work." Haitian anthropologist Jacque Romain notes if a person becomes a born-again believer, there is irreconcilable conflict between a person and his patron-loa. [38] 

Fallen Angels
George Eaton Simpson, a trained sociologist and anthropologist who's research largely focused on the religions of the Caribbean, including vodun in the Plaisance, Haiti, area, was told by at least one Voodoo priest that "the loas are fallen angels. [39] And he is not the only one. Many Vodouns claim that the Loa are actually fallen angels of sorts that God allows to still perform work for him among the humans. [40]

According to the Bible, fallen angels are the demonic forces that we are repeatedly warned to beware of.

Finally - A Meaningless Language? Probably not
It is more than likely that what we perceive as unintelligible words spoken in so many Pentecostal and Charismatic churches, is not an unknown language nor meaningless gibberish, but a language or languages that are very well known to the demons who speak them.

In summary, when there is almost nothing in common between the Biblical accounts of people receiving the Holy Spirit and what takes place in Pentecostal churches, and so much in common between what takes place in Pentecostal churches and what takes place in both voodoo rituals and Hinduism shouldn't we start entertaining the possibility that tongues are not necessarily a sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit of God.

Isn't it more honest and reasonable to take Paul's words seriously when he wrote  

    For if one comes and preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached, or you receive, a different spirit which you have not received (Gr. lambano), or a different gospel which you have not accepted, you bear this beautifully.  (2 Corinthians 11:4 NASB)

Tragically, the allure of receiving some form of deeper spiritual experience has deceived countless millions into accepting this spirit. Paul who wrote the following letter to Timothy more than 1900 years ago, clearly saw what would happen many years in the future...

    But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons, (1 Timothy 4:1 NASB)

Foot Note I.. The Oracle of Delphi
Delphi is a modern town in Greece on the slopes of Mount Parnassus and also the site of the 4th-century-B.C. Temple of Apollo, once home to a legendary oracle. An oracle was a priest or priestess acting as a medium through whom advice or prophecy was sought from the gods. The position of the  oracle at Delphi was filled by different women from about 1400 B.C. to A.D. 381.

The Sibylline priestess became a legendary figure through whom Apollo is said to have made prophecies, causing people from all over Europe to travel to the temple to inquire about the future. The sibyl would fall into a trance, allowing Apollo to possess her spirit, and then indulged in ecstatic speech, which was "translated" by the priests of the temple. [PLACE IN TEXT]

Foot Note II.. Tongues in Catholicism

Stanley Burgess's short essay - Medieval Examples of Charismatic Piety in the Roman Catholic Church, cites male religious who received the gift of tongues. The list includes SS. Pachomius, Dominic, Vincent Ferrer, Anthony of Padua (who wrote that "his tongue became the pen of the Holy Spirit"), Louis Bertrand, Francis Xavier, Stephen, and Bl Angelo Clareno.

    Note that Dominic was the founder of the Dominican Order, to whom the Virgin Mary supposedly appeared in 1208, with the message - "One day through the Rosary and the Scapular I will save the world".

Regarding religious women who receive the gift of tongues, Stanley Burgess's findings were restricted to SS. Clare of Montefalco, Colette, Hildegard of Bingen, and the sixteenth century Spanish nun Joan of the Cross.

    Note Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) a known Christian mystic, was a Benedictine abbess who founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg Eibingen and is said to have left behind over 100 letters, 72 songs, 70 poems, and 9 books including three books of visions

In her book The Gift Of Tongues: Women's Xenoglossia In The Later Middle Ages the author Christine Cooper-Rompato says she located other examples of medieval xenoglossic experiences, such as Basil The Great, Andrew the Fool for Christ, Norbert, Francis of Assisi, Bernard of Siena, St. Lutgard of Ayswieres, St. Bridget of Sweden, Catherine of Siena, Elisabeth of Schonau, Bridget of Sweden, Umilta of Faenza, Christian Mirabilis, and Margery Kemp. [41]

Ignatius of Loyola- God or an "evil spirit"
What is particularly interesting is that, in his Spiritual Journal, Ignatius of Loyola makes daily mention of "loquela" (ecstatic speech) that came to him in prayer. However, he also said that he was not sure whether the experience was caused by God or "the evil spirit". [42]

And Now:
The Catholic Charismatic Renewal, which sprang from a retreat held in February 1967 at Duquesne University, at which many students were baptized in the Holy Spirit. As stated by the National Service Committee (a body of leaders in the Catholic Charismatic Renewal)

    God's action was also prepared for in a very human way by the students prayerful preparation in reading the Acts of the Apostles and a book entitled The Cross and the Switchblade.

This move then spread to graduate students and professors at the University of Notre Dame and others serving in campus ministry in Lansing, Michigan, and continued to spread to over 238 countries in the world, having touched over 100 million Catholics in its first 40-years of existence. [43]  [PLACE IN TEXT]

Foot Note III.. Tongues in Mormonism. (An Adamic language?)
The gift of Tongues is mentioned several times in the Mormon Scriptures [See Omni 1:25, Alma 9:21, Mormon 9:24, and Moroni 10:15-17], and even more often in Mormon History. (All emphasis added in the following quotes)

    "Tuesday, 29.After preaching at 10 o'clock a. m., I [Joseph Smith] baptized two, and Confirmed them at the water's side. Last evening we ordained F. A. Nickerson an Elder; and one of the sisters received the gift of tongues, which made the Saints rejoice exceedingly. [History of the Church 1:422, October 1833]

    "President Rigdon then arose and observed that instead of preaching the time would be occupied by the Presidency and Twelve, in speaking each in his turn until they had all spoken. The Lord poured out His Spirit upon us, and the brethren began to confess their faults one to the other, and the congregation was soon overwhelmed in tears, and some of our hearts were too big for utterance. The gift of tongues came on us also, like the rushing of a mighty wind, and my soul was filled with the glory of God." [History of the Church 2:376, January 1836]

    "About the 8th of November I received a visit from Elders Joseph Young, Brigham Young, and Heber C. Kimball of Mendon, Monroe county, New York. They spent four or five days at Kirtland, during which we had many interesting moments. At one of our interviews, Brother Brigham Young and John P. Greene spoke in tongues, which was the first time I had heard this gift among the brethren; others also spoke, and I [Joseph Smith] received the gift myself." [History of the Church 1:295-297, November 1832:] Also See  Brigham Young Modern Moses/ Prophet of God pp. 27-28, By Francis Gibbons, Deseret. Book Company, S.L.C., Utah , 1981

    "We arrived at the place where there was a small branch of the Church; we conversed with them, attended their meetings and heard them preach, and after staying about one week we returned home, being still more convinced of the truth of the work, and anxious to learn its principles and to learn more of Joseph Smith's mission. The members of the branch in Pennsylvania were the first in the Church who received the gift of tongues....In the evening a few of the brethren came in, and we conversed together upon the things of the kingdom. He called upon me to pray; in my prayer I spoke in tongues. As soon as we arose from our knees the brethren flocked around him, and asked his opinion concerning the gift of tongues that was upon me. He told them it was the pure Adamic language. Some said to him they expected he would condemn the gift Brother Brigham had, but he said, "No, it is of God, and the time will come when Brother Brigham Young will preside over this Church. The latter part of this conversation was in my absence." [Brigham Young History, 180144, ed., E. Watson (1968), page 2, 4-5: [PLACE IN TEXT]

Footnote IV - Pentecostalism - The Four Waves
The first "wave" started in 1901 through Charles Parham of Bethel College in Kansas.

The second "wave" began with Dennis Bennett, rector of St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California, who believed that he had received the Baptism of the Holy Spirit and spoken in tongues. When he said so from the pulpit the resulting outcry was unbelievably strong with articles appearing in Newsweek, TIME and even Encyclopedia Britannica. Rather than subject his church to a media frenzy, Bennett resigned, but continued his ministry at the small St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Seattle, Washington that exploded into a revival center where tens of thousands experienced the baptism.

The third "wave" was through the Catholic Charismatic Renewal movement. "The modern Charismatic Renewal in the Catholic Church traces its beginnings to a retreat for students at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania held in February 1967. Several of those on that retreat experienced being "baptized in the Holy Spirit." As they shared their experience with friends and colleagues, the Charismatic Renewal quickly spread, first around the country and soon around the world. [44] in its first 40-years of existence, the movement is said to have touched over 100 million Catholics.

The fourth "wave" was started by evangelicals in 1987 at Fuller Theological Seminary, specifically by John Wimber. It is said that by 1990, 33 million professing Christians were involved in the "signs and wonders" movement. [See Section on John Wimber and the Vineyard Churches]  [PLACE IN TEXT]

Continue On To Part VI - The Conclusion HERE


End Notes  (Accessed November 2016)
[11] L. Carlyle May. Harvard University.. A Survey of Glossolalia and Related Phenomena in Non Christian Religions.

[12] Montanism. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Montanism

[13] Eusebius of Caesarea, History of the Church, v. xvi. 7

[14] Speaking in tongues . The Association of Religion Data Archives – U.S. and World Religion Statistics and Data.

[15] Jennings, G. J.: An Ethnological Study of Glossolalia, J. Am. Sci. Affil. (1968) as quoted in

[16] Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. "Chapter 1: Religious Beliefs and Practices.” U.S. Religious Landscape Survey.

[17] Matthew Allen. Excited Utterances: A Historical Perspective On Prophesy, Tongues and Other Manifestations of Spiritual Ecstasy. https://bible.org/article/excited-utterances-historical-perspective-prophesy-tongues-and-other-manifestations-spiritua

[18] Glossolalia in Contemporary Linguistic Study. http://www.meta-religion.com/Linguistics/Glossolalia/contemporary_linguistic_study.htm

[19] Gary B. McGee. Tongues, The Bible Evidence. The Revival Legacy of Charles F. Parham.

[20] Mark DeVine. The Gospel Coalition. Where Did All These Pentecostals and Charismatics Come From? November 18, 2013.

[21] New World Encyclopedia. Pentecostalism. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pentecostalism

[22] Gary B. McGee. William J. Seymour and the Azusa Street Revival. http://enrichmentjournal.ag.org/199904/026_azusa.cfm. (All Emphasis Added)

[23] Louis F. Morgan, Ph.D. History of the Azusa Street Revival. http://www.louismorgan.info/azusa.html

[24] Southern View Chapel. Think on These Things Articles. The Holiness Movement.. (December 2004 - Volume 10, Issue 12.. Emphasis Added

[25] (Parham 1911: 55, 72, 120-121). K. Neill Foster. Glossolalia and the Ruark Procedure. Distinguishing Between True and False Utterances. A lecture delivered at the Evangelical Theological Society in Jackson, Mississippi, November 1996.

[26] Randall J. Stephens, Assessing the Roots of American Pentecostalism: A Historiographic Essay. http://are.as.wvu.edu/pentroot.htm

[27] Iain MacRobert. The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the USA (MacMillian Press) quoted in Wikipedia

[28] Brian Handwerk. Voodoo a Legitimate Religion, Anthropologist Says - for National Geographic News. October 21, 2002

[29] Catherine Beyer. Alternative Religions Expert. Vodou, an Introduction for Beginners. About, Inc.

[30] ibid.

[31] How did Voodoo come to New Orleans?
How-did-Voodoo-come-to-New-Orleans-.html&Itemid=8. Link no longer active

[32] Pat Haskell. Musical Journeys https://pathaskell.wordpress.com/category/culture/

[33] Bishop William J. Seymour. Pastor of the Apostolic Faith Mission. 312 Azusa Street - Los Angeles, California.

[34] Tek-Gnostics .. Voodoo at Mardi Gras! https://tekgnostics.blogspot.com/2014/03/mardi-gras-and-voodoo-wild.html

[35] Harold Courlander, The Drum and the Hoe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960), p. 11. As quoted in Biblical Demon Possession and Haitian Loa Possession. Part IV Loa possession in Haitian voodoo by Howard Culbertson.

[36] Harold Courlander, The Drum and the Hoe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960), p. 11. As quoted in Biblical Demon Possession and Haitian Loa Possession. Part IV Loa possession in Haitian voodoo by Howard Culbertson.

[37] Francis Huxley, The Invisibles (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1966), p. 113. As quoted in Biblical Demon Possession and Haitian Loa Possession. Part IV Loa possession in Haitian voodoo by Howard Culbertson. http://home.snu.edu/~hCULBERT/voodoo3.htm

[38] As quoted in Biblical Demon Possession and Haitian Loa Possession. Part IV Loa possession in Haitian voodoo by Howard Culbertson. http://home.snu.edu/~hCULBERT/voodoo3.htm

[39] George Eaton  Simpson. The Belief System Of Haitian Vodun. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1945.47.1.02a00030/pdf

[40] Nicole Canfield. Vodou Planning & Reverence. June 19th, 2011.

[41] Christine F. Cooper-Rompato. The Gift Of Tongues: Women's Xenoglossia In The Later Middle Ages. Penn State Press, 2010. Pages 11-12

[42] Ignatius of Loyola: Spiritual Exercises and Selected Works. Pg. 268. Paulist Pr (May 1991)

[43] Catholic Charismatic Renewal. National Service Committee. About Catholic Charismatic Renewal.

[44] The Charismatic Renewal in the Catholic Church. Christ the King Catholic Church of Ann Arbor.


Index To Tongues