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The Purpose Driven Life

Part VII...  Questionable Authors, The Catholic Mystics, Contemplative Prayer, and
The Four Temperaments

Carol Brooks

Also See Seeker Friendly, Church Growth Failures in The Bible


PART I... Introduction to Rick Warren and The Purpose Driven Life, which is alive, well, and being reinvented for a whole new generation. So what is the Purpose Driven Life about, and why 40 days?

PART II... Who is The Purpose-Driven Life's target audience? A shallow incomplete gospel that cannot save. Theology that falls somewhere between determinism and free will. A plethora of questionable Bible versions that actually alter the meaning of the original Hebrew and Greek text.

PART III... Some of the problems in Chapters 1-10

PART IV... Some of the problems in Chapters 11-20.

 Part V... Chapter 21 (unity at all cost) and Saddleback’s Member Covenant

Part VI... Some of the problems in Chapters 25-40

    You Are Here 001orange Part VII... Quoting Some Highly Questionable Authors, The Catholic Mystics, Contemplative Prayer, and The Four Temperaments. Oh yes! And lets not forget the introduction to a well known New Age leader.

Part VIII .... Summary and Conclusion. What you will find in PDL is a wide variety of, potentially, very destructive people, ideas, and practices, and the deliberate and blatant twisting of Biblical text taken to a whole new level. On the other hand, any mention of repentance, discernment, and holiness are glaringly absent from a book that claims to be the "Windows system of the 21st-century church."


Quotes From Questionable Authors..Aldous Huxley, Anais Nin, William James, Albert Schweitzer etc

Billy Graham and C.S. Lewis

PDL and Catholicism / Mother Teresa

Catholic Mystics
Henri Nouwen
Madame Guyon and Automatic Writing

New Age Leader Bernie Siegel

Brother Lawrence
"Breath Prayers"
Pray Without Ceasing

Sacred Pathways
Spiritual Disciplines
The Four Temperament Theory


Quotes From Questionable Authors
The pages of The Purpose Driven Life are liberally sprinkled with quotes from a wide variety of questionable authors, all of whom Warren refers to in order to support the particular subject he happens to be writing about. What is extremely reprehensible is that several of those quoted were not only spiritually lost but, at least one led a decadent lifestyle, another was a staunch supported of hallucinogens, and at least two were active opponents of Biblical orthodoxy.

Additionally, Warren, on more than once occasion, refers to monks, nuns, and mystics as examples to be emulated.

Aldous Huxley
At the end of chapter 31, Understanding Your Shape, Rick Warren says

    "If Paul had kept his experience of doubt and depression a secret, millions of people would never have benefited from it. Aldous Huxley said, "Experience is not what happens to you. It is what you do with what happens to you." What will you do with what you've been through.

Aldous Huxley? Could this possibly be the English writer who was also well known for advocating and taking psychedelics, and experimented with LSD in 1955, and mescaline two years earlier. The latter put him at the forefront of the counter culture's experimentation with LSD. (Mescaline is a hallucinogen obtained from the a small, spineless cactus Peyote. It is used by natives in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States as a part of traditional religious rites). Huxley published an influential study advocating the use of mescaline to expand perception and consciousness, maintaining that the person who has this experience would be transformed for the better. He published an account of his experiences in a 1954 book, The Doors of Perception, in which he wrote...

    The mescaline experience is without question the most extraordinary and significant experience available to human beings this side of the Beatific Vision." [26]

He once said

    If we could sniff or swallow something that would, for five or six hours each day, abolish our solitude as individuals, atone us with our fellows in a glowing exaltation of affection and make life in all its aspects seem not only worth living, but divinely beautiful and significant, and if this heavenly, world-transfiguring drug were of such a kind that we could wake up next morning with a clear head and an undamaged constitution-then, it seems to me, all our problems (and not merely the one small problem of discovering a novel pleasure) would be wholly solved and earth would become paradise. [27]

Huxley also had an enduring fascination with eastern religions.

Anais Nin
Chapter five is headed by a quote from Anais Nin, who said

    "We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are"

So who was Anais Nin? As Wikipedia says

    Nin is hailed by many critics as one of the finest writers of female erotica. She was one of the first women to explore fully the realm of erotic writing, and certainly the first prominent woman in the modern West to write erotica. Nin was a friend and, in some cases, lover, of many leading literary figures, and wrote about her infatuation with the surrealist artist Bridget Bate Tichenor in her diaries. In her second unexpurgated journal, Incest, she wrote that she had an incestuous relationship with her father, which was graphically described.

Sadly this was not the only quote heading chapter 5 in The Purpose Driven Life. The other is from the book of James, who was not only the Lord's half brother, but the head of the Jerusalem church. That a quote from the book of James is, is put alongside something Nin said is, to me, extremely repulsive.

William James

In chapter 36, Made For a Mission, under the sub-heading of "Your mission gives your life meaning", Warren quotes William James who said

    "The best use of life is to spend it for something that outlasts it". [Pg. 285]

William James, a 19th century philosopher, had an interesting family. He was the brother of novelist Henry James, the son of Henry James Sr, a noted and independently wealthy Swedenborgian theologian. Additionally, his godfather was Ralph Waldo Emerson. Not surprisingly one of William James' more famous sayings was "The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitudes" [28]. James was the first president of the American branch of the Society for Psychical Research and an advocate of pragmatism and religious pluralism.

Albert Schweitzer
In Chapter 34.. Thinking Like A Servant, Rick Warren wrote

    Imagine what could happen if just 10 percent of all Christians in the world got serious about their role as real servants Imagine all the good that could be done.... God will use you if you will begin to act and think like a servant. Albert Schweitzer said "The only really happy people are those who have learned how to serve".

Albert Schweitzer was a leading theological liberal of the 20th century; known for his "quest for the historical Jesus." He saw Jesus' ethic as

    "only an "interim ethic" (a way of life good only for the brief period before the cataclysmic end, the eschaton). As such he found it no longer relevant or valid. Acting on his own conclusion, in 1913 Schweitzer abandoned a brilliant career in theology, turned to medicine, and went out to Africa where he founded the famous hospital at Lambaréné out of respect for all forms of life". [29]

Please note the opening words of the final chapter of The Quest of the Historical Jesus by Albert Schweitzer [Emphasis Added]

    The Jesus of Nazareth who came forward publicly as the Messiah, who preached the ethic of the Kingdom of God, who founded the Kingdom of Heaven upon earth, and died to give His work its final consecration, never had any existence. He is a figure designed by rationalism, endowed with life by liberalism, and clothed by modern theology in an historical garb.

And a little later on, he says

    Jesus means something to our world because a mighty spiritual force streams forth from Him and flows through our time also. This fact can neither be shaken nor confirmed by any historical discovery. It is the solid foundation of Christianity. The mistake was to suppose that Jesus could come to mean more to our time by entering into it as a man like ourselves. The mistake was to suppose that Jesus could come to mean more to our time by entering into it as a man like ourselves. That is not possible. First because such a Jesus never existed... " [30]

[Because of the efforts of the Jesus Seminar, the quest for the 'historical Jesus' took on new life in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Details]

And then The Purpose Driven Life has the almost obligatory quotes from

Billy Graham and C.S. Lewis
Billy Graham
In the chapter entitled Transformed By Truth, Rick Warren talks about the inestimable importance of knowing that the Bible is the word of God, and that we should consider it as essential to our lives as food [Pg. 186].

However, on the next page, Warren talks about the time when evangelist Billy Graham made a commitment to "completely trust the Bible as the sole authority for his life and ministry." Warren goes on to say that "from that day forward, Billy's life was blessed with unusual power and effectiveness." 

Sadly, this is far from the truth. Billy Graham was ecumenical to the core, and acted as if practicing Catholics, Mormons, and theological liberals were all orthodox Christians. He certainly made no distinction between those who embrace and propagate false doctrine and orthodox Christians. [See Billy Graham]

C. S. Lewis
The many Evangelicals who love and laud C.S. Lewis seem to be unaware that he questioned the inerrancy of Scripture although he believed that it was, in some sense, the word of God. He also believed saved people were purified of their sins in purgatory before entering heaven itself, and that a person could be saved without necessarily knowing Jesus specifically. [See Beyond Mere Christianity:an assessment of C. S. Lewis]

Also See

The Chronicles of Narnia: If it is true, as some Christians have alleged, that The Chronicles of Narnia are an illustrious biblical metaphor... Wonderful adventures that filled with Biblical allegory and allusion. However one has to ask why they draw as much from pagan mythology as they do the Bible, and worse, why does one of the main characters Mr. Tumnus bears an astonishing similarity to the Greco/Roman fertility deity Pan, one of the most enduring symbols for the anti-Christ. And there is more...plenty more.

PDL and Catholicism
Our Lady of Soledad Parish which describes itself as "a vibrant Catholic community located in Coachella, California" [31] has, on it's web site, a summary of what the author, Fr. Bruce Cecil, CSC, calls "Rick Warren’s fascinating book", which he said "may help provide a New Year's jump start" for their spiritual growth in 2005. This summary apparently first appeared in their bulletin as "Notes From the Pastor".  

The book itself was available in both English and Spanish in the parish gift shop. [32]

Apparently there is absolutely nothing in The Purpose Driven Life to offend the sensibilities of any Catholic. Which is why The Holy Family Parish in Inverness, Illinois was host to a three-day conference by Pastor Bret Schrock of the Purpose Driven Ministries. According to catholic.org

    The Purpose Driven Church will — for the first time ever — be bringing their evangelical message of living out God's five purposes to a Catholic Church: Holy Family Parish in Inverness, Illinois.

"Since our inception in 1984, we have become a Catholic church that takes novel, non-traditional approaches to evangelization,” says Pastor Pat Brennan implementing The Purpose Driven Church, a three-day conference, will be held on April 25th, 26th and 27th. Each day's session begins at 9 a.m., and will be delivered by Pastor Bret Schrock of the Purpose Driven Ministries. Additionally, at 7 p.m. on Tuesday evening April 26th, Pastor Schrock will lead a ninety minute seminar titled: Living The Purpose Driven Life. [33]

And of course, Rick Warren's quotes of several Catholic or Catholic mystics, probably doesn't hurt.

Mother Teresa
The following excerpt from The Myth Of Mother Teresa, by Tim Challies goes a long way in debunking the myth of Mother Theresa who is, I believe, twice quoted in PDL.

    Mother Teresa, as goes without saying, was a devout Roman Catholic. As such, some of her beliefs would necessarily have to stand at odds with core Christian beliefs. This has not appeared to trouble many Christians who continue today, even in Protestant churches, to uphold her as a prime example of Christian virtue, love and self-sacrifice. Her devotion to Catholic theology is obvious in her speeches and writing. In a speech she delivered to the Worldwide Retreat For Priests in October of 1984 she made the following quotes:

      a) "At the word of a priest, that little piece of bread becomes the body of Christ, the Bread of Life.”

      b) "Without a priest, without Jesus going with them, our sisters couldn't go anywhere.”

      c) "When the priest is there, then can we have our altar and our tabernacle and our Jesus. Only the priests put Jesus there for us. … Jesus wants to go there, but we cannot bring him unless you first give him to us. This is why I love priests so much. We could never be what we are and do the things we do without you priests who first bring Jesus to us.”

      d) "Mary … is our patroness and our Mother, and she is always leading us to Jesus.”

    In just these four quotes we get a glimpse of beliefs that contradict so many gospel truths. We see a belief in transubstantiation (the bread of communion actually becomes the body of Christ DETAILS) and her belief that Christ is present in this bread. We also see her belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus, is a mediator between God and ourselves (see Catholic Catechism, paragraph #969, #1172 and #494) and as such, plays a role in our salvation.

    While she worked with the poor, Mother Teresa was adamant that any type of evangelism was necessary. In her book, Life in the Spirit: Reflections, Meditations and Prayers, she says:

      "We never try to convert those who receive [aid from Missionaries of Charity] to Christianity but in our work we bear witness to the love of God's presence and if Catholics, Protestants, Buddhists, or agnostics become for this better men — simply better — we will be satisfied. It matters to the individual what church he belongs to. If that individual thinks and believes that this is the only way to God for her or him, this is the way God comes into their life — his life. If he does not know any other way and if he has no doubt so that he does not need to search, then this is his way to salvation.” (Pages 81-82) [34]

Quoting people like Aldous Huxley and Anais Nin is reprehensible enough. Quoting Mother Teresa, a devout Roman Catholic is not very much better. However, the path gets really murky with Warren's many referrals to the Catholic, so called mystics.

Catholic Mystics
Henri Nouwen is referred to on page 108, and again on Page 269 (Chapter 34.. Thinking Like A Servant), where he is quoted as saying

    "In order to be of service to others we have to die to them; that is, we have to give up measuring our meaning and value with the yardstick of others... thus we become free to be compassionate."

This quote is from Pgs. 34-35 of Nouwen's book The Way of the Heart: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. In fact, if read in it's entirety, it says [All Emphasis Added]

    If you would ask the Desert Father why solitude gives birth to compassion, they would say, "Because it makes us die to our neighbor." At first, this answers seems quite disturbing to a modern mind.  But when we give it a closer look we can see that in order to be of service to others we have to die to them; that is, we have to give up measuring our meaning and value with the yardstick of others. To die to our neighbors means to stop judging them, and thus to become free to be compassionate. Compassion can never coexist with judgment because judgment creates the distance, the distinction, which prevents us from really being with the other."

Nouwen was a Roman Catholic priest and a psychologist. However, what is perhaps most concerning is that his ideas derived, at least in part, from other religions and the mysticism of the east. Consider these short excerpts from several of his many books [All Emphasis Added]

    that his solitude and the solitude of his Buddhist friends, would "greet each other and support each other." [Henri Nouwen. Sabbatical Journey, 1998 Pg. 20 ]

    "Today I personally believe that while Jesus came to open the door to God's house, all human beings can walk through that door, whether they know about Jesus or not. Today I see it as my call to help every person claim his or her own way to God." [Henri Nouwen. Sabbatical Journey. Pg. 51, 1998 Hardcover Edition]

    Prayer is soul work because our souls are those sacred centers where all is one, ... It is in the heart of God that we can come to the full realization of the unity of all that is. [Henri Nouwen. Bread for the Journey]

    "a place for everyone in heaven" [Henri Nouwen. Life of the Beloved - Pg. 53]

    "Still, when we remain faith to our discipline, even if it is only ten minutes a day, we gradually come to see — by the candlelight of our prayers — that there is a space within us where God dwells and where we are invited to dwell with God… The God who dwells in our inner sanctuary is the same as the one who dwells in the inner sanctuary of each human being." [Henri Nouwen. Here and Now. Pg. 22] [See More on Henri Nouwen and other Catholic pioneers of the Contemplative Movement]

Madame Guyon and Automatic Writing

Chapter 25.. Transformed By Trouble, is headed by one quote from Madame Guyon, and another from the book of 2 Corinthians. Madame Guyon (1648 – 1717) was a  French Catholic mystic, whom Rick Warren quotes as saying

    "It is the fire of suffering that brings forth the gold of godliness."

Evelyn Underhill, herself a mystic who believed that there was a common ground to all authentic mystical experience, be it Jewish, Hindu, or Muslim, said

    "Madame Guyon's temperament had in it almost as much of the medium as of the mystic, and her passion for quietism and mental passivity left her almost wholly at the mercy of subconscious impulses, she exhibits by turns the phenomena of clairvoyance, prophecy, telepathy, and automatic writing, in bewildering profusion". [35]

Evelyn Underhill also refers to Guyon's autobiography [All Emphasis Added]

    Madame Guyon states in her autobiography, that when she was composing her works she would experience a sudden and irresistible inclination to take up her pen; though feeling wholly incapable of literary composition, and not even knowing the subject on which she would be impelled to write. If she resisted this impulse it was at the cost of the most intense discomfort. She would then begin to write with extraordinary swiftness; words, elaborate arguments, and appropriate quotations coming to her without reflection, and so quickly that one of her longest books was written in one and a half days. "In writing I saw that I was writing of things which I had never seen: and during the time of this manifestation, I was given light to perceive that I had in me treasures of knowledge and understanding which I did not know that I possessed." [36]

This is a perfect description of automatic writing, said to be writing produced by a spiritual, occult, or subconscious agency, rather than by the conscious intention of the writer. The world of the occult understands that it is a "channeling technique to let your higher self or another entity to use your hands to write message or information." [36b] Emphasis Added.

No doubt, Madame Guyon thought her hand was controlled by God when she wrote "with extraordinary swiftness" and "without reflection". However, if God managed, over the course of 1500 odd years, to inspire 40 plus men to write 66 of the Bible, without the slightest evidence of physically controlling their pens, why would He suddenly change tactics and employ a method well known to psychics and occultists the world over.

And, if God is not the inspiration behind this type of communication, then the "other entity" mentioned has to be a spirit guide, that communicates through you, which means that, to a greater or lesser extent, it takes control of you. In his 1918 book, The New Revelation, Arthur Conan Doyle wrote that automatic writing occurs either by the writers subconscious or by external spirits operating through the writer. He then quoted, what appeared to him to be a 'thoroughly critic-proof case" to show "how strong the evidence is that these messages are not self-evolved". What I find particularly telling is the fact that the account states that [Emphasis Added]

     "... something seemed to intervene between my hand and the motor centres of my brain, and the hand wrote at an amazing rate a letter, signed with my father's signature and purporting to come from him. [37]

Sound familiar?

The Web site Awaken to Light, "co-created by Vera Nadine Bóinn, Serge Bóinn and various higher-vibrational beings" [38], says that when automatic writing is "employed as an extra-sensory practice, it involves opening oneself up to not only your own subconscious but also to spiritual beings and entities who might have some positive information and wisdoms to share with you... pen in hand, you are more likely to be able to let spiritual beings speak to you and through you" [39]

Bob Olson, a former private investigator and skeptic who began using his investigation skills to research psychics, psychic mediums and the afterlife in 1999. This research led him to establish www. OfSpirit.com Magazine (2000), www.AfterlifeTV.com (2011), www. BestPsychicMediums.com (2001) and www. BestPsychicDirectory.com (2007), three of the most trusted and influential sources for understanding and locating trustworthy psychics and psychic mediums. Olsen describes automatic writing as a

    "process of shutting your conscious mind off to allow your unconscious mind to take over your writing, allowing your spirit-guides to write (communicate) through you. Some think of automatic writing as “channeled” writing where your body (in this case, your hands and fingers) is controlled by spirits. Others think of it more as a means of communication, not allowing spirit to control your body but allowing you to stop the noisy chatter of your conscious thoughts in order to hear what the spirits are saying, or possibly what your higher self has to tell you. [40]

Anna Conlan, who teaches Psychic Awakening, which includes Chakra Meditation, says

    Automatic writing is a great, non-scary way of channelling your Higher Self or Spirit Guides through writing.  It allows you to ‘download’ their perspective subconsciously using claircognizance and transcribe it as it comes in. [41].

    By the way, she describes the "higher self" as being "the spirit part of you that is said to 'reside' in the Ether (the non-physical realm). It’s your Divine spark... it's the part of you that has access to all the wisdom amassed over the course of the many lifetimes you've lived, past, present and future.... Living your Spirit means remembering that you are God energy or Source energy in a physical body and the Creator of your world. The power inside you to create your world is the same power that creates worlds. It’s your life purpose to utilize it to create the world you want. [42]

Erin Pavlina, described as one of the most highly regarded and highly sought after intuitive counselors in the world today", [43] writes that there are two ways to do automatic writing.

    "In the first case, you allow spirit to control your hand while you write messages.  This is very similar to using a ouija board except that with automatic writing you are alone. I don’t recommend that anyone utilize this method of automatic writing because you are allowing spirits to take control of you, which can lead to some negative consequences. If you were very trained, however, and had good psychic and trance control, you could allow beings of high vibration to write through you. [44]

Ellie Crystal (Psychic, Teacher, Author, Researcher, Lecturer, and Broadcaster) is the owner of the web site Crystalinks. She says "Zoroaster" - her Spirit Guide wrote many of the columns in Crystalinks. [45]

It is a pity that Madame Guyon "used" the Scriptures to quiet her mind and supposedly bring her into God's presence. Had she actually read the Bible, perhaps she would have realized that we can only come into God's presences through Jesus Christ.  Her instructions were to

    "make use of scripture to quiet your mind. First read a passage of scripture. Once you sense the Lord's presence, the content of what you read is no longer important. The scripture has served its purpose; it has quieted your mind; it has brought you to him... You should always remember that you are not there to gain an understanding of what you have read; rather you are reading to turn your mind from the outward things to the deep parts of your being. You are not there to learn or to read, but you are there to experience the presence of your Lord" [46]

But, of course, since any Catholic claiming to have experienced God's presence (the more flowery the words, the better) must be an authority on how to do so (sarcasm intended). In his book Devotional Classics Richard Foster quotes these very words from Guyon. [47]

As an aside, the infamous A Course In Miracles and Neal Donald's Walsh's book Conversations with God, were both channelled. Speaking of which...

Bernie Siegel
In Friendship with God, Neale Donald Walsch writes that Bernie Siegel was the “first celebrity endorsement” he received for his first book Conversations with God: Book 1. Walsch wrote

    "it helped book buyers, who might have been skittish about a previously unpublished author, see the value of what I had produced.” [48]

Yet, quite amazingly, in Chapter 3... What Drives Your Life?, Rick Warren suddenly makes reference to the very same Bernie Siegel...

    "Hope is as essential to your life as air and water. You need hope to cope. Dr. Bernie Siegel found he could predict which of his cancer patients would go into remission by asking, “Do you want to live to be one hundred?” Those with a deep sense of life purpose answered yes and were the ones most likely to survive. Hope comes from having a purpose." [Pg. 31]

So who exactly is this Bernie Siegel who was so important to the credibility of Conversations With God, and who is referenced by "America's pastor"? The answer is more than shocking.

Siegel was a Connecticut physician who, in 1978, attended a workshop in which guided visualization, and contact with a spirit guide, completely changed his life, and the way he practiced medicine. In his book Love, Medicine & Miracles, Bernie Siegel says this

    "In June 1978, my practice of medicine changed as a result of an unexpected experience I had at a teaching seminar. Oncologist O. Carl Simonton and psychologist Stephanie Matthews (then his wife) gave a workshop- Psychological Factors, Stress, and Cancer- at the Elmcrest Institute in Portland, Connecticut.."

    "The Simontons taught us how to meditate. At one point they led us in a directed meditation to find and meet an inner guide. I approached this exercise with all the skepticism one expects from a mechanistic doctor. Still, I sat down, closed my eyes, and followed directions. I didn’t believe it would work, but if it did I expected to see Jesus or Moses. Who else would dare appear inside a surgeon's head? Instead I met George, a bearded, long-haired young man wearing an immaculate flowing white gown and a skullcap. It was an incredible awakening for me, because I hadn't expected anything to happen.

    "George was spontaneous, aware of my feelings, and an excellent adviser. He gave me honest answers, some of which I didn’t like at first...

    "All I know is that he has been my invaluable companion ever since his first appearance. My life is much easier now, because he does the hard work... George also helped me see things about medicine that I'd missed before. [49]

Siegel also teaches that "Death is no barrier to this intuitive, spiritual consciousness. It continues after death and it communicated between the dead and the living". He adds that he has "received many messages from those who have died," (Pg. 220). He concludes with instructions on how to meditate and visualize cosmic-at-oneness energy healing. He also lists a whole spate of New Age writers and books for suggested reading (pp. 227-239).

As said by Warren Smith [All Emphasis Added]

    Since that initial spiritual encounter, Siegel has become a leading New Age author and spokesperson. Providing "hope" by fusing modern day medicine with New Age teachings and practices, Siegel has introduced New Age concepts into the professional medical community and to cancer patients everywhere. In Friendship with God, new ager Neale Donald Walsch writes that Bernie Siegel was the "first celebrity endorsement" he received for his first book Conversations with God: Book 1. Walsch said that "it helped book buyers, who might have been skittish about a previously unpublished author, see the value of what I had produced.”

    Today, Siegel continues to influence countless numbers of people in his role as a New Age leader. In his books and workshops he encourages people to do guided meditations and visualizations, just as he once did, to initiate contact with their own personal spirit guides. Siegel openly endorses the teachings of A Course in Miracles, and currently serves on the Board of Advisors of Jerry Jampolsky’s A Course in Miracles-based Attitudinal Healing Center in Northern California.  [50]

Rick Warren introducing his readers to a New Age leader like Bernie Siegel, can only mean one of two things. Warren is incredibly ignorant of the New Age, and it's terribly agenda, or 2) He doesn't really care what or whom he introduces his readers to.

And, as I said once before, in neither case is he fit to be a leader of the church. But, unfortunately, he doesn't stop with Madam Guyon and Bernie Siegel.

Brother Lawrence

In Chapter 11, Rick Warren says that attending church once a week or and having a daily quiet time is insufficient to develop a close relationship with God, but there are six "secrets" to having a friendship with God, one of which is including God in every activity, conversation, problem, and even thought [Pg. 87]. To this end Warren quotes what he calls a "classic book on learning how to develop a constant conversation with God" [Pg. 88]

The book referred to is "Practicing The Presence of God" written by a "Brother Lawrence" who lived from 1614-1691, and whose real name was Nicholas Herman. Brother Lawrence was a Roman Catholic who, being uneducated, entered a Carmelite monastery as a layman, and worked in the kitchens of the monastery. However, he was also a mystic, who advocated a "higher" form of prayer.

There is no question that the book itself has one commendable aspects, inasmuch as all of us need to come to a greater awareness that not only is God all-knowing and all-powerful, but He is also all-present. Additionally, the point that every aspect of our lives is to be consecrated to Him, is an acknowledged Biblical precept and one that most of us need to practice.

On the downside, brother Lawrence obviously believed that his own sufferings either paid for his sins, or helped pay for his sins. In his eleventh letter, he said [Emphasis Added]

    Happy those who suffer with Him: accustom yourself to suffer in that manner, and seek from Him the strength to endure as much, and as long, as He shall judge to be necessary for you. The men of the world do not comprehend these truths, nor is it to be wondered at, since they suffer like what they are, and not like Christians: they consider sickness as a pain to nature, and not as a favour from GOD; and seeing it only in that light, they find nothing in it but grief and distress. But those who consider sickness as coming from the hand of God, as the effects of His mercy, and the means which He employs for their salvation, commonly find in it great sweetness and sensible consolation. [51]

Comments by Father Joseph de Beaufort, who compiled the book after Brother Lawrence died, included the following. [Emphasis Added]

    "Prepared by such a life, Brother Lawrence saw death draw near without perturbation. His patience had been great indeed through all his life, but it waxed stronger [than] ever as he approached the end. He was never in the least fretful, when he was most wracked with pain; joy was manifest not only on his countenance, but still more in his speech, so much so in fact that those who visited him were constrained to ask whether he was not suffering. 'Forgive me,' he replied. 'Yes, I do suffer, the pains in my side sore trouble me, but my spirit is happy and well content.' They added, 'Suppose God will that you suffer for ten years, what then?' 'I would suffer, ' he answered, 'not for ten years only, but till the Day of Judgment, if it be God's will; and I would hope that He would continue to aid me with His grace to bear it joyfully.' His one desire was that he might suffer something for the love of God, for all his sins, and finding in his last illness a favorable occasion for suffering in this life, he embraced it heartily. Purposely he bade the brethren to turn him on to his right side; he knew that this position gave great pain, and therefore wished to remain therein to satisfy his burning desire to suffer..." [52]

It is interesting that on Page 199 of The Purpose Driven Life, Rick Warren quotes the Bible as saying "Rejoice in the Lord always", adding that the Bible doesn't say, "Rejoice over your pain" because that would be "masochism". Did he not read brother Lawrence's masochistic tendencies when he wished to be turned on to the side that gave him the most pain, which satisfied his "burning desire to suffer".

The fact that, like so many Catholics, brother Lawrence completely missed the basics of the Gospel means that, although he may have made some good points, he cannot possibly be trusted with spiritual matters. Besides which, this little booklet is one of the founding documents of the Contemplative prayer movement. In his fifth letter Lawrence says for the right practice of the presence of God...

    the heart must be empty of all other things; because GOD will possess the heart alone; and as He cannot possess it alone, without emptying it of all besides, so neither can He act there, and do in it what He pleases, unless it be left vacant to Him. [53]

There are two problems associated with this.

1) Mystics from both Eastern and Western traditions rely on techniques such as: repetitive prayers (repeating a word or phrase over and over again), contemplation of real or imagined icons and/or images, and emptying the mind. None of it is exclusive to Christianity, but common practices of mystics in all the great world religions. In fact, the goal of yoga is described as chitta britti nirodha, the quieting of the mind-field, or the restricting of thought. And much as one may deny it, a mantra is essentially a word or phrase repeated over and over again.

Although mysticism is a slippery term, the definition of which is often determined by who is doing the defining, most believe that it is a special experience in which the soul is in direct contact with the Divine. It is considered a special holy moment during which the person may receive special knowledge, revelation, or insight. The fundamental idea behind Christian Contemplative Prayer, is to encounter God, and to experience, or be aware of, His presence in a way that is almost impossible to describe. Others say it is to enjoy His companionship, and to listen, in case He chooses to speak.

    Contemplative prayer, in its simplest form, is prayer in which you still your thoughts and emotions and focus on God Himself. This puts you in a better state to be aware of God's presence, and it makes you better able to hear God's voice correcting, guiding, and directing you… The fundamental idea is simply to enjoy the companionship of God, stilling your own thoughts so you can listen should God choose to speak. For this reason, contemplative prayer is sometimes referred to as ‘the prayer of silence.’ [54]

However, what is extremely troubling is the fact that, regardless of personal belief, something common to all religions does transpire during this mystical experience. In fact, there are several factors in common between virtually all mystical experiences, regardless of whether the practitioner is Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Agnostic, or an Atheist. Not only is the meditation of advanced occultists is identical with the prayer of advanced mystics, but the experience of being united with God or nature is nearly universal. What however is most alarming is, as Pastor Gary Gilley says in his review of Winfried Corduan's book Mysticism, an Evangelical Option? [Emphasis Added]

    "The problem (or at least one of several problems) is that every mystic describes his experience in line with his belief system. Hindus believe they have union with the Hindu deities, the American Indian thinks he has contacted the Great Spirit, and the Christian mystic believes he is receiving revelation from God. Of course they cannot all be correct". [55]

Therefore, the question that springs to mind is what can explain this phenomena. Is the practitioner really transported to a "higher realm of consciousness". Do they really experience, or become one with, the Divine, or is the explanation a far more mundane one?

In the light of what we now know about the four levels of brain-wave activity (the activity of the brain during various stages of human consciousness), the explanation is actually quite simple.

Mystical states of consciousness happen in the Alpha, or "resting state" of the brain. It is a passive state where one is non-critical and non-analytical. The brain is relaxed... not asleep, but focused and aware, the mind is clear and receptive to information. It is similar to being half way between being fully awake and asleep. The Alpha state is often associated with the transportation to a "higher realm of consciousness" or mystical experience. What is particularly telling is that the Alpha state can be purposely induced by a number of methods, including Meditation, Chanting, Rhythmic Breathing, Rhythmic Dancing, and Mantras, producing similar results.

In her book Spiritual Fitness, author Caroline Reynolds talks about "Meditating with Sound". She says [Emphasis Added]

    "a good way to enhance the hypnotic effect of your breathing is by accompanying it with the introduction of sound. Since, at the vibrational level, you are made up of light and sound, when you open yourself up to the sound vibrations around you, you automatically change your state of consciousness.  Because of the bio-chemical effect that words have on your entire system, the use of mantras, (which are repeated sounds or phrases) is a powerful transformational technique... [56]

This is not unknown to teachers of various mystic methods. For example, in his book Celebration of Discipline, Richard Foster says [All Emphasis Added]

    "If you feel we live in a purely physical universe, you will view meditation as a good way to obtain a consistent alpha brain wave pattern. But if you believe that we live in a universe created by the infinite-personal God who delights in our communication with him, you will see meditation as communication between the Lover and the one beloved. The two concepts of meditation are complete opposites. The one confines us to a totally human experience; the other catapults us into a divine-human encounter." [57]

What Foster is saying here is that there are only "two concepts of meditation", not two different kinds of meditation. In other words, the meditation of the atheist, the Buddhist, the Catholic mystic and the Christian differ only in how they are perceived. So where did he, or anyone else get the idea that Christian meditation is "communication between the Lover and the one beloved"? Apparently, because Madame Guyon said so... In his book Celebration of Discipline, Richard Foster says...

    "The one talks about the exploration of the subconscious; the other speaks of "resting in him whom we have found, who loves us, who is near to us, who comes to draw us to himself." [57]

which is a quote from Pg. 83 of Madame Guyon's book, The Other Side of Silence: A Guide to Christian Meditation. (New York: Paulist Press, 1976),

[For Details See Contemplating The Alternative

So, considering that an altered state of consciousness can be purposely induced in every human being on the face of this planet, the Christian cannot possibly claim that these methods put him in closer connection with God. Because, if this is all that is needed to get in touch with, or closer to the Divine, then Christ wasted His time (to say nothing of His blood) coming to earth and dying, so that we would no longer be "strangers to the covenants of promise", but "brought near" by the blood, which gave us the "confidence to enter the holy place". [All Emphasis Added]

    Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. [Hebrews 10:19-22 NASB]

    But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the ages to come He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. [Ephesians 2:4-7 NASB]

    remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. [Ephesians 2:12-13 NASB]

Is it any wonder then that....

2) While the Bible endorses meditating on God's word to gain insight and understanding, it nowhere teaches that God gives us any knowledge through the emptying of the mind, or any kind spiritual experience. Since, in the Scriptures, knowledge is always linked to God's revelation, Bible believers are never encouraged to seek mystical experiences. The instructions heard in apostate churches today, are not to try and understand, analyze, or figure out the experience but, in completely opposition to this are the many instructions in the Scriptures that tell believers to use their intellect or minds.

The Lord Himself said

    "Come now, and let us reason together," Says the LORD, "Though your sins are as scarlet, They will be as white as snow; Though they are red like crimson, They will be like wool. [Isaiah 1:18 NASB]

From the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel, to Jesus, Paul, and James, they all asked the same question "Do you not know". In every case the question was a rebuke, because the people should have known.

    The prophet Isaiah twice asked "Do you not know? Have you not heard? " [Isaiah 40:21, 28]

    "Say now to the rebellious house, 'Do you not know what these things mean?' Say, 'Behold, the king of Babylon came to Jerusalem, took its king and princes and brought them to him in Babylon. [Ezekiel 17:12 NASB]

Jesus repeatedly asked the people if they had not read something in the Scriptures, with the implication that should have known, because they must have read. [Matthew 12:3, 12:5, 19:4, 22:31. Mark 12:10, 12: 26, Luke 6:3,

Paul repeatedly asked the question "Do you not know.... ?" In fact, in the sixth chapter of 1 Corinthians, Paul asks the question six times. and then twice more in chapter 9. [Also see Romans 6:3, 16, 1 Corinthians 3:16, 5:6]. Similarly James asks if they do not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? [James 4:4] Philip asked the Ethiopian eunuch: ‘Do you understand what you are reading? [Acts 8:30]

True faith is built on knowledge. Faith in wrong teachings always comes from a lack of knowledge of what the Bible teaches. Note the many many Scriptural references to using one's mind [All Emphasis Added]

    But He turned and said to Peter, "Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not setting your mind on God's interests, but man's." [Matthew 16:23 NASB]

    and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' [Mark 12:30 NASB Also Luke 10:27]

    These all with one mind were continually devoting themselves to prayer, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers. [Acts 1:14 NASB]

    Day by day continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart, [Acts 2:46 NASB]

    For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace, [Romans 8:6 NASB]

    And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect. [Romans 12:2 NASB]

    For such men are slaves, not of our Lord Christ but of their own appetites; and by their smooth and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting. [Romans 16:18 NASB]

    however, in the church I desire to speak five words with my mind so that I may instruct others also, rather than ten thousand words in a tongue. [1 Corinthians 14:19 NASB]

    that, in reference to your former manner of life, you lay aside the old self, which is being corrupted in accordance with the lusts of deceit, and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, [Ephesians 4:22-23 NASB]

    whose end is destruction, whose god is their appetite, and whose glory is in their shame, who set their minds on earthly things. [Philippians 3:19 NASB]

    And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds, [Colossians 1:21 NASB]

    Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth. [Colossians 3:2 NASB]

    "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the lord: I will put my laws upon their heart, and on their mind I will write them," He then says, [Hebrews 10:16 NASB]

    'And I will kill her children with pestilence, and all the churches will know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your deeds. [Revelation 2:23 NASB]

    Also See

    Theology and Doctrine Thanks, in part, to apostate, so called "Christian" leaders like Paul Crouch, all too many Christians seem to be under the impression that "theology" and "doctrine" are of minimal importance. They are not only widely misunderstood, but brushed aside by Christians, some of whom believe that theology and doctrine have little relevance to their religious life and practice. Other seem to think that these five dollar words are best left to those who have spent years poring over dusty tomes, or spent at least a year or two in in the halls of academia, and have a string of letters after their names. Perhaps the words "theology" and "doctrine" gets Christians on the defensive, because they have been taught to believe that their faith must be based in the heart, therefore all that is important will be "experienced". Or perhaps they want no challenges to their shallow 'easy Christianity', which requires no intellectual effort, and allows people to coast along, never being stretched, or using their God given brains. The fact is that both theology and doctrine are crucial to authentic Christian faith.

    The Four Most Dangerous Mistakes Any Christian Can Make 1) Believe that we, or our pastor/denomination/spiritual leader cannot be fooled, 2) Attribute every personal testimony and "sign" as being of or from God, 3) Take Bible verses out of context and 4) believe that we, as Christians, are not to judge anything or any one. Not necessarily in that order.

    Why Christians Are Deceived The reasons that so many modern day Christians are deceived are numerous. They believe they should be "united", and are commanded to "love". They do not want to be labeled "heresy hunters", accused of quenching the spirit, or found guilty of 'touching' the Lord's anointed etc. etc. However, I believe these, and all other reasons deception is so rampant in the church, can be attributed to just two underlying facts... Too many Christians are Biblically illiterate, their theology confined to catch phrases, and daily devotionals of familiar passages of Scripture, preferably well sprinkled with inspirational stories and jokes. This shallow understanding of their faith causes them to be more conditioned by the culture than by the Bible. Besides which, Christians seem to be very addicted to 'spiritual highs'.

"Breath Prayers"

On Page 89, Warren then quotes the Bible as saying "pray all the time" [Thessalonians 5:17. The Message]. He then asks how it is possible to do this? And suggests that "one way is to use "breath prayers" throughout the day as many Christians have done for centuries". Emphasis Added

    You choose a brief sentence or a simple phrase that can be repeated to Jesus in one breath: "You are with me." "I receive your grace." "I'm depending on you." "I want to know you.” "I belong to you." "Help me trust you.” You can also use a short phrase of Scripture: "For me to live is Christ." "You will never leave me." "You are my God."... Practicing the presence of God is a skill, a habit you can develop. Just as musicians practice scales every day in order to play beautiful music with ease, you must force yourself to think about God at different times in your day. You must train your mind to remember God.

It seems reasonably apparent that Rick Warren did not think up the idea of "Breath Prayers" all by himself, but picked it up it from Richard Foster. Warren is obviously very familiar with Foster's writings. In his earlier book... The Purpose Driven Church, Warren named Foster and Dallas Willard as two of the authors who underscored the importance of the Discipleship/Spiritual Formation Movement... one of the five para-church movements, Warren says is raised up by God "to reemphasize a neglected purpose of the church". The Discipleship/Spiritual Formation Movement supposedly develops believers "to full maturity" by establishing personal "Spiritual Discipline" [58].

In his book, Prayer: Finding the Heart's True Home, released in August 1992, just three years prior to the release of The Purpose Driven Church, Richard Foster wrote about "breath prayers" as a way to fulfill Paul's instruction to "pray without ceasing". He then, in the same chapter, brought up brother Lawrence, which is almost exactly the same format followed by Warren in The Purpose Driven Life.

Coincidence? I don't think so.

Here is what Foster had to say...

    As Christians over the centuries have sought to follow the biblical injunction to "pray without ceasing", they have developed two fundamental expressions of Unceasing Prayer. The one is more formal and liturgical; the other is more conversational and spontaneous. The first has its origin in the Eastern Christian hesychastic tradition and is usually called aspiratory prayer or breath prayer. The idea has its roots in the Psalms where a repeated phrase reminds us of an entire Psalm, for example, "0 LORD, you have searched me and known me" (Ps.139:1). As a result, the concept arose of a short, simple prayer of petition that can be spoken in one breath, hence the name "breath prayer".

Foster then went on to say [All Emphasis Added]

    The most famous of the breath prayers is the Jesus Prayer: "Lord Jesus Christ,Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner." As you can tell, this prayer is derived from Jesus' parable on self-righteousness, in which the tax collector beat his chest and prayed, "God, be merciful to me, a sinner!" (Luke 18:13). It came together in its present form and was used extensively in the sixth century and was revived in the Eastern Church in the fourteenth century.

    In the nineteenth century an anonymous Russian peasant tells the moving story of his search to pray without ceasing in The Way of a Pilgrim. Once he learned the Jesus Prayer, he prayed it continuously until the prayer moved from his mind into his heart and finally throughout his whole body - becoming so internalized that it was present with him at all times, whether he was awake or asleep. This particular book has had an influence upon Christians far beyond the borders of the Eastern Church.

    Commenting on breath prayers, Theophane the Recluse notes, "Thoughts continue to jostle in your head like mosquitoes. To stop this jostling you must bind the mind with one thought, or the thought of One only. An aid to this is a short prayer, which helps the mind to become simple and unified."

    When it comes to "praying without ceasing" then you could go no further than the 15th century monk Brother Lawrence and his writing. [59]

Note: The Way of a Pilgrim tells the story of a pilgrim's inner journey, which begins when he is struck by the words of Paul who told the Thessalonians to "pray without ceasing" (I Thessalonians 5:17). His journey through churches and monasteries to try and understand this injunction, finally led him to a starets who taught him the "Jesus Prayer... "Lord Jesus Christ have mercy on me", and gave him practical advice on how to uninterruptedly recite the prayer, as a type of mantra. A starets is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery (not necessarily a priest) who is recognized for his piety, and functions as venerated adviser and teacher, who is turned to by monks or laymen for spiritual guidance.

Foster's Word of Warning and Precaution
Yet, on page 156, Foster issues a word of warning. He says "like the warning labels on medicine bottles. Contemplative prayer is not for the novice", and adds that "all are welcome, regardless of proficiency or expertise" to enter into other forms of prayer, like adoration, mediation and intercession, etc. but "contemplation is different". He adds that the apprentice electrician is not allowed to do the job of a journeyman because it could be dangerous. Similarly, in their spiritual lives, people need to learn multiplication tables before they attempt calculus.

Foster then goes on to quote C.S. Lewis as telling his friend Malcolm how "early in his Christian experience he attempted wordless prayer with little success". And wrote that he still thought that prayer without words is best, if one can achieve it, but he now saw that in trying to make it his daily bread he "was counting on greater mental and spiritual strength" than he really had.  Lewis added "To pray successfully without words one needs to be at the top of one's form".

Foster adds that Lewis was correct, and that

    "Contemplative Prayer is for those who have exercised their spiritual muscles a bit and know something of the landscape of the spirit. In fact, those who work in the area of spiritual direction always look for signs of a maturing faith before encouraging individuals into Contemplative Prayer." [Emphasis Added]

A little further down in the same chapter, Foster adds "a word of precaution". He says

    "In the silent contemplation of God we are entering deeply into the spiritual realm, and there is such a thing as a supernatural guidance that is not divine guidance. While the Bible does not give us a lot of information on the nature of the spiritual world, we do know … there are various orders of spiritual beings, and some of them are definitely not in cooperation with God and his way! ... But for now I want to encourage you to learn and practice prayers of protection... “All dark and evil spirits must now leave.” [60]

I am curious as to how Foster can say "the Bible does not give us a lot of information on the nature of the spiritual world". While I am sure there are details that we know nothing about, the Bible actually gives us quite a bit of information. It tells us that demons are the the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places (Ephesians 6:12), who were well aware of Christ's identity and power (Mark 1:34 and 5:6-7). They are described as"evil" in Luke 7:21, unclean in Matthew 10:1, and "deceitful" in 1 Timothy 4:1-3 and 2 Corinthians 11:13-15. Demons are said to have great strength (Mark 5:3, Acts 19:16) and power to torment man (Revelation 9:1-11). They also promote false teaching (1 Timothy 4:1) and, in order to do so, go as far as to disguise themselves as servants of righteousness (2 Corinthians 11:15). In some cases, they seem to be able to predict the future (Acts 16:16).

Besides which, the Bible clearly defines idolatry as the worship of demons,

    What do I mean then? That a thing sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? No, but I say that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God; and I do not want you to become sharers in demons. (1 Corinthians 10:19-20),

Which is (obviously) why the warnings about idols extend from one end of the Bible to the other

    And I said unto their children in the wilderness, Walk ye not in the statutes of your fathers, neither observe their ordinances, nor defile yourselves with their idols. [Ezekiel 20:18]

    Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve. [Matthew 4:10-11]

    “… abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. [Acts 15:20]

    And the rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk: [Revelation 9:20]

So the million dollar question is why God would want us to indulge in a type of prayer that could expose us to demonic beings who are "not in cooperation with God" and therefore, would wish to harm us. Does it make a whit of sense that one should pray a "prayer of protection", before one begins praying. And isn't it amazing that Foster recognized that contemplative prayer could expose a person to demons, yet endorsed the practice because of subjective feelings, that he, and all others like him, assumed was the presence of God?

Access to the throne of God is not for an exclusive group of Christians who are mature enough, and who have enough "spiritual strength", to handle "wordless prayer", but is for everyone who has been justified by faith, and born again of the Spirit of God. We are no longer be "strangers to the covenants of promise", but "brought near" by the blood, which gave us the "confidence to enter the holy place". [All Emphasis Added]

    Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. [Hebrews 10:19-22 NASB]

    But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised us up with Him, and seated us with Him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the ages to come He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. [Ephesians 2:4-7 NASB]

    remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. [Ephesians 2:12-13 NASB]

Why in the world do we need to take dangerous steps to "enter deeply into the spiritual realm", since the Bible that tells us that the Spirit of God already dwells in us. How much closer can He get than 'within us'? Christians who are seeking to get closer to God through a subjective and, possibly, very dangerous experiences, are doing nothing but showing their blatant disbelief in what the New Testament says... [Emphasis Added]

    But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you. [Romans 8:11 NASB]

Pray Without Ceasing
It seems impossible to believe that when Paul spoke about praying without ceasing, he meant short, endlessly repeated phrases, that initially may serve to remind the pray-er that God is near but, over time, may very well develop into a meaningless, and thoughtless, repetition. There were several instances when Paul mentioned prayer, but it was always in the context of prayer for a specific reason.

     He prayed that the Corinthians do no wrong and be made complete [[Corinthians 13:7-9].

     That the hearts of the Ephesians be enlightened, so they would understand the hope of His calling and the glory of their inheritance [Ephesians 1:18].

     He asked the Ephesians to pray that he would boldly make known the mystery of the Gospel [Ephesians 6:19].

     That Philemon's fellowship of faith may become effective [Philemon 1:6].

     Paul asked the The church at Thessalonica to pray for that the word of the Lord will spread rapidly and be glorified [2 Thessalonians 3:1].

I see absolutely NO reference to anything remotely resembling "breath prayers".

In any case, unceasing prayer is not non-stop praying; Two parables told by our Lord should help understand what Paul meant.

    Luke 11: Immediately after Jesus taught the disciples, what we call The Lord's prayer, he told them the parable of the two friends, one of whom had already gone to bed, whom we will call friend A, when he was disturbed by the other (B) who had a visitor and no food to set before him. Initially the first was reluctant to get out of bed and answer the door, but friend B was so persistent that A had no choice but to get up and give him what he asked for.

    Luke 18: This chapter begins with Jesus teaching the disciples that they ought to ought to pray at all times and not lose heart. To illustrate this  He told them  another parable about a judge who was pestered by a widow who wanted legal protection from an opponent. Verse 4 says he was initially unwilling but eventually He gave her what she asked for, not because he feared God, but because her persistence wore him down, and he wanted some peace. In verses 6 and 7 the Lord said that if such a person as the unrighteous judge would give in to the widow's persistence, would not a righteous God "bring about justice for His elect who cry to Him day and night"

Jesus' point in the two parables was that if a reluctant friend and an unjust judge will do what is asked because of the persistence of the petitioner, then certainly a compassionate God will do far more. In other words, when we are so dependent on God for every moment of our lives, it would be well if we pray persistently, conveying not only our needs, but also worship and praise. A sermon on the Grace Community Church (Sun Valley, California) web site says it so very well.

    And so, Jesus is saying in effect, pray, pray like this, pray persistently, pray consistently, pray at all times, don't give up, don't lose heart, keep knocking, keep asking, keep seeking and good, compassionate, faithful, loving, gracious, merciful Jehovah, your God, will hear and answer. [61]

Some will, perhaps, see these instructions as contradicting Jesus' teaching in Matthew 6:7-8, when He said

    "And when you are praying, do not use meaningless repetition as the Gentiles do, for they suppose that they will be heard for their many words. "So do not be like them; for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.

The key to the verse above is the word "meaningless". While there is no question that God hears and understands the pain, longing, and passion, behind many of the requests that come to His ears, all too many people in this world use some mantra or chant, some form of prayer beads, or other kind of religious ceremony or ritual that they believe is going to make God incline His ear favorably towards them. Jesus was not forbidding meaningful repetition, but meaningless babble that originates in the mouth, not the heart. Besides which, His own supplications were remarkably short. Returning to the words of the Grace Community Church sermon

    So when Paul says pray without ceasing, he's not in disagreement with Jesus. He is simply supporting the principle taught in Luke 11 and Luke 18 that prayer is to be incessant. We are not heard simply for our many words, but we are heard for the cry of our heart. The man who came to his friend's house and needed bread did not pray a formula ritual prayer, he pleaded for something he needed. The widow who came to the judge did not offer to the judge some mantra or some chant or some recitation of ritual prayer. The woman gave the cry of her heart for protection from one who had the power to do that. And such heart crying repetitious prayer is that which moves the heart of a compassionate loving God. [61]

However, meaningless repetition is exactly what contemplatives continue to indulge in, and exactly the kind of praying that is taught by people like Richard Foster, and encouraged by Rick Warren. It is a poor facsimile of prayer that God will not hear.

Meditation Or Contemplative Prayer
One more example of Rick Warren's confused theology is when he, on page 90, defines Biblical meditation, which is the the exact opposite of contemplative meditation.

    While you cannot spend all day studying the Bible, you can think about it throughout the day, recalling verses you have read or memorized and mulling them over in your mind. Meditation is often misunderstood as some difficult, mysterious ritual practiced by isolated monks and mystics, But meditation is simply focused thinking -  a skill anyone can learn and use anywhere. (Pg. 90).

Also see Chapter 24, page 190, in which Warren says "meditation is focused thinking" and abiding in God's word means reflecting on it.

But, didn't Warren just endorse Catholic contemplative prayer techniques on the three previous pages of PDL, even suggesting techniques used by one of those "isolated monks and mystics"? Either you spend your day repeating "breath prayers", or you use much of your time thinking about various passages in God's words.

I strongly suggest you do the latter.

I have gone into a fair amount of detail (although there is much more that can be said) simply because, Rick Warren has directly (and favorably) introduced a Catholic monk to his readers calling some of his ideas "helpful" [Pg.88]. He has indirectly introduced his readers to eastern meditation techniques via the world of Richard Foster and a myriad of Catholic mystics (both modern and ancient) whom he quotes in his books. Note that many of the modern Catholic mystics learned their techniques directly from Buddhists and practitioners of other eastern religions.

However, Rick Warren is far from through introducing his reader to practitioners and teachers of Contemplative, or Centering prayer

Sacred Pathways
In Day/Chapter 13... Worship That Pleases God, Rick Warren quotes his "friend" Gary Thomas, author of Sacred Pathways...

    In his book Sacred Pathways, Gary identifies nine of the ways people draw near to God: Naturalists are most inspired to love God out-of-doors, in natural settings. Sensates love God with their senses and appreciate beautiful worship services that involve their sight, taste, smell, and touch, not just their ears. Traditionalists draw closer to God through rituals, liturgies, symbols, and unchanging structures. Ascetics prefer to love God in solitude and simplicity. Activists love God through confronting evil, battling injustice, and working to make the world a better place. Caregivers love God by loving others and meeting their needs. Enthusiasts love God through celebration. Contemplatives love God through adoration. Intellectuals love God by studying with their minds. There is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to worship and friendship with God.

Before even opening the book, one gets a glimmer of some of the contents by reading the The Publishers Weekly endorsement on the back cover, which says

    "Creative and well-written …Thomas cites Henri Nouwen as an example of 'the sensate,’ which is a happy illustration since Thomas himself shows great potential for becoming the Henri Nouwen of evangelicalism." Publishers Weekly

An endorsement which is repeated on Gary Thomas' site [62]

Is Sacred Pathways also an open door to the dangerous and deceptive world of Contemplative prayer? Unfortunately the answer to that question is a resounding "yes", since Thomas lists different ways people can draw near to God, one of which is by incorporating contemplative prayer. In a section titled "Centering Prayer" on Pgs. 185-186, Thomas says

    It is particularly difficult to describe this type of prayer in writing, as it is best taught in person. In general however, centering prayer works like this: Choose a word (Jesus or Father, for example) as a focus for contemplative prayer. Repeat the word silently in your mind for a set amount of time (say, twenty minutes) until your heart seems to be repeating the word by itself, just as naturally and involuntarily as breathing.

    It is hard to describe this to the western mind. We think, "Well what do I do next?" But centering prayer is a contemplative act in which you don't do anything; you're simply resting in the presence of God.... Some Christian traditions might view our anxious and wordy prayers as distracting rather than effective. [63]

In this context, Thomas quotes John Climacus, who he says wrote an early "classic" on the Christian life.

    "let there be no studied elegance in the words of your prayer... do not launch out into long discourses that fritter away your mind in efforts for eloquence. One word alone spoken by the Publican touched God's mercy; a single word full of faith saved the Good Thief. Many words in prayer often fill the mind with images and distract it, while often one single word draws it into recollection." [63]

He then adds..

    The purpose of centering prayer is not to cultivate feelings or create a "spiritual experience"; it is simply to rest in and enjoy the blessed presence of God. [63]

I am having a hard time figuring out how the words of the publican in the temple, or the criminal crucified on the cross next to Jesus, have anything to do with centering prayer, which Gary Thomas has just described as working by focusing on a single word, then repeating it silently for twenty minutes or so, the purpose of which is to "enjoy the blessed presence of God". The last point being the usual spiel touted by the Catholic mystics.

In the parable of the Pharisee and the Publican, the Pharisee was pretty much the epitome of arrogance. He was haughty, self righteous, and looked down on everybody else, in completely contrast to the Publican who's prayer was humble and self effacing. His prayer was, simply,  ... "Lord have mercy on me, a sinner". However, it was the attitude of the Publican's heart that endeared him to God, not his words which, by the way, he was unlikely to have repeated over and over again. Ditto for the thief on the cross. He, in one short sentence, asked for mercy and forgiveness for his sins, which was immediately given. See Luke 18:9-14 and 23:39-43.

In short, the Bible does not advocate long and involved prayers, but speaks in favor of the short ones that come from a humble and contrite heart.

John Climacus, who Gary Thomas quoted in Sacred Pathways, recommended the use of The Jesus Prayer... a short and simple prayer highly regarded in the Eastern Orthodox church and by various mystics through the centuries, which is based on the publican's prayer in Luke 18. It consists of the single sentence.. "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, the sinner". However, repeating this endlessly makes absolutely no sense, since the Bible tells us that at the point of salvation, we are have already been cleansed from, and forgiven our sins. The only time we need to ask for forgiveness is when we fall into sin again.

    Note: John Climacus is also known as John of the Ladder, because his "classic" book... The Ladder of Divine Ascent, describes how to raise one's soul to God, as if on a ladder. the words quoted above were on the twenty-eighth step of his Ladder, on the topic of prayer.

Thomas also refers to Thomas Merton and Henri Nouwen some four or five times each, Teresa of Avila once, and Mother Teresa at least thrice. See Pgs 27 and 176.

A very large concern is not only how far the door opens, but how one open door leads to yet another... each one drawing the unsuspecting person deeper and deeper into the realm of the occult, and further and further away from Christ.

Sacred Marriage

Another of Gary Thomas' books is called "Sacred Marriage", which has been enthusiastically endorsed by Rick Warren's wife... Kay Warren. she says about the book

    "How I wish that Sacred Marriage had been in print when Rick and I got married! I enthusiastically recommend it to couples contemplating, or who have already entered into, marriage, the most powerful tool God has for molding and shaping us into the image of his Son.” - Kay Warren, Teacher and speaker [64]

This is a typical example of how one door leads to another. Kay Warren ardently endorses Gary Thomas' book Sacred Marriage. A Christian who assumes she knows what she is talking about, buys and reads Sacred Marriage, in which Gary Thomas repeatedly references a book called Conjugal Spirituality, authored by Mary Anne McPherson Oliver. And, it is very possible that said Christian will then obtain Conjugal Spirituality.

And what could be wrong with that? I am going to leave this one to Cephas Ministry. What follows is an excerpt from their article Serious Concerns for Focus on the Family's Marriage Conference (it was written after Focus on the Family's February 28, 2009, "Focus on Marriage" conference in a "LIVE simulcast", to which they invited Gary Thomas to help train married couples attending the event).

    On the back of Oliver's book, it states that "[r]eligious practice as we know it today remains, in effect, 'celibate.' Mary Anne Oliver proposes an alternative ... she examines the spiritual dynamics of long-term relationship."

    You may be wondering, "What does that all mean?" To put it simply, Oliver believes that sexuality and spirituality go together and that couples are missing out because they have not incorporated the two but rather have practiced what she calls a celibate spirituality. But she is not just talking about spirituality - she is talking about mystical spirituality!

    Oliver received her doctorate in mystical theology at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California, and her book permeates with her mystical persuasions. She describes her "discomfort" regarding present views on sexuality and religion and says she hunted for answers by talking to monks, going on retreats and even spending an entire ("liturgical") year at Taize, an ecumenical, meditation-promoting community in France. Eventually, she came to identify what she termed "conjugal spirituality" (p. 1).

    Oliver says that "negative attitudes" and "walls" toward sex have inhibited people and says: "Although the walls are coming down, the separation of sex and spirituality which has been operative since the 4th century has yet to be completely eliminated" (p. 16).

    What exactly is Oliver proposing couples do to remove these "walls"? Very clearly, her message to couples is to turn to mysticism. In dismay, she says that "spiritual counsellors and writers" have not begun to teach the "Upanishads [Hindu scriptures] and Tantric writings as the basis for moral theology for couples" and that "[s]ome still refuse to grant that mystical experience can be associated with erotic love" (p. 18). Oliver says that changes in mainstream theology have prepared the way for "the emergence of conjugal spirituality." She adds: "An upsurge of interest in the spiritual life and a renaissance in mystical studies have widened the domain of spirituality" (p. 27).

    This mysticism that Oliver encourages is experienced through "bodily exercises" that the couple practice together, "creating one's spiritual space." Listen to some of her instructions in what she describes as "intercourse on all levels of consciousness":

      1. "Center 'that whole human reality which some people are beginning to call bodymind'" (p.85).
      2. "Two basic movements in which each can contact the core energy of the other and experience the enlarging of the oval inhabited by the divine presence" (p. 91).
      3. Yin and Yang movements
      4. "Concentrate in the stillness and silence" (p. 93).
      5. "Center yourselves."
      6. "Meditate using the five senses. Experience the circuit of energy circling slowly through the joined bodies" (p. 93).
      7. "Focus a few minutes on the breath as a sign of the Spirit's activity within yourself" (p.102).
      8. "Repeat name or "I love you" as a mantra" (p. 102).

    In Conjugal Spirituality, Oliver talks favorably about mystic Teilhard de Chardin's Omega Point, and the "Indian Tantric Yoga tradition ... spoken of as kundalini potential energy" (p. 97). She describes public sexual ceremonies in which couples practice "Taoist visualizations and meditations, accompanied by breathing exercises" and talks of "[i]nvoking the gods and goddesses." Oliver says that society may frown on such public displays of sexual mysticism at this time and couples may have to improvise until restrictions are lifted. She says that "sexual union celebrated [is] an eschatological sign of God's kingdom where all will be one" (p. 101).

    It is important to realize here that when Gary Thomas read Oliver's book, he resonated with it. This is not guilt by association, but rather guilt by promotion. For those who do not understand the significance of his promotion of Conjugal Spirituality, perhaps a brief lesson in tantric sexuality (an underlying theme in Oliver's book) will help to illustrate it. Ray Yungen explains:

      Tantra is the name of the ancient Hindu sacred texts that contain certain rituals and secrets. Some deal with taking the energies brought forth in meditation through the chakras and combining them with love-making to enhance sexual experiences. [65]

Note that Omega Point is a term coined by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a French Jesuit priest, (1881–1955) to describe a maximum level of complexity and consciousness towards which he believed the universe was evolving.

As a by-the-way, on Gary Thomas' site is a short list of "Classic Christian Authors", which includes Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Brother Lawrence. [66]


    Augustine: The Sins of Augustine

    Martin Luther: An Ill Earned Reputation Based Upon Total Ignorance of the Facts? 

    Calvin: Index To Doctrines of Grace Or Predestination.

Spiritual Disciplines

    (Note that the "Church Growth Movement" is also listed as one of the five parachurch movements that we "should be grateful to God for". As Warren himself says, the movement began with the books of Donald McGavran, Peter Wagner etc. [Pg 127]

In Chapter 28 (Thinking About My Purpose) of The Purpose Driven Life... Warren says that if we practice something over time, we get good at it. "Repetition is the mother of character and skill. These character building habits are called "spiritual disciplines"" (Pg. 221). While the list of books Warren refers the reader to, are all assorted "Purpose Driven" material, I wonder how many readers are going to be enticed to read and follow the "spiritual disciplines" endorsed by Dallas Willard and Richard Foster, which are nothing more than Contemplative prayer.

The Four Temperament Theory
In Chapter/Day 31... Understanding Your Shape, Warren makes the following statement.

    The Bible gives us plenty of proof that God uses all types of personalities. Peter was a sanguine. Paul was a choleric. Jeremiah was a melancholy. When you look at the different personality differences in the twelve disciples, it's easy to see why they sometimes had interpersonal conflict. ( Pg. 245)

Numerous Christians believe in and promote the four temperaments as a means of understanding human nature and behavior, perhaps largely due to Tim LaHaye and Florence Littauer, whose books and seminars have influenced millions of Christians.

    Florence Littauer, listed as one of Helen K. Hosier's "100 Christian Women Who Changed the Twentieth Century" is well known for her series of books based upon the Personality Plus personality system. She and her husband first began looking into personality groups as a way of trying to explain the differences in personality between them, and based their system on Hippocrates's theory of the Four Temperaments. However, unlike Hippocrates's system, Littauer stated that individuals could be made up of several personality types rather than to just be classified into one. She popularized the system known as The Personalities, which has become the standard on personality profiling in many settings, and has over the last 40 years spoken to innumerable "church groups, business conventions and medical teams". [67]

    Tim LaHaye has been an avid student of the Four Temperament Theory for many years [68], introducing the subject to Christians in 1966, with the publication of his book Spirit-Controlled Temperament. This book was apparently based on another by Dr. Ole Hallesby, a Norwegian theologian about which, PsychoHeresy Awareness Ministries says "Hallesby’s book has no footnote references to undergird his statements about each of the four temperaments. Therefore, his book is a combination of his own limited observations and the opinions of other unnamed individuals. Nevertheless, as he discusses the characteristics of a Sanguine, Choleric, Melancholy, or Phlegmatic person, he speaks as though what he says is fact. LaHaye follows in the same tradition. Although he does credit Hallesby for much of his material, he has no research or other support for the detailed delineation of characteristics". [69]

The pseudo-scientific four-temperaments theory originated in ancient myths and occult practices... based on the zodiac.

    Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory. It may have origins in ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia, but it was the Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BC) who developed it into a medical theory.

    He believed certain human moods, emotions and behaviors were caused by body fluids (called "humors"): blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Next, Galen (AD 131–200) developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation De temperamentis, and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans. He mapped them to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet taken from the Four Elements.There could also be "balance" between the qualities, yielding a total of nine temperaments. The word "temperament" itself comes from Latin "temperare", "to mix".

    In the ideal personality, the complementary characteristics or warm-cool and dry-moist were exquisitely balanced. In four less ideal types, one of the four qualities was dominant over all the others. In the remaining four types, one pair of qualities dominated the complementary pair; for example; warm and moist dominated cool and dry. These latter four were the temperamental categories Galen named "sanguine", "choleric", "melancholic" and "phlegmatic" after the bodily humors, respectively. Each was the result of an excess of one of the humors that produced, in turn, the imbalance in paired qualities. [Excerpted From Wikipedia]

(For more information, see Media Spotlight's Four Temperaments: Astrology & Personality Testing, and Psychology: Science or Religion) http://www.mediaspotlight.org/pdfs/FOUR%20TEMPERAMENTS.PDF


CONTINUE ON TO PART 8... SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. What you will find in PDL is a wide variety of, potentially, very destructive people, ideas, and practices, and the deliberate and blatant twisting of Biblical text taken to a whole new level. On the other hand, any mention of repentance, discernment, and holiness are glaringly absent from a book that claims to be the "Windows system of the 21st-century church."


End Notes
[26] Barnes & Noble Internet Chat with Huston Smith to discuss his new book, Cleansing the Doors of Perception.

[27] Aldous Huxley. Wanted: A New Pleasure. http://www.huxley.net/ah/index.html

[28] Philosophical Insights From William James. http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/quotations/james.html

[29] http://web.archive.org/web/20080516020817/http://www.westarinstitute.org/Polebridge/Title/5Gospels/Seven_Pillars/seven_pillars.html

[30] Albert Schweitzer. The Quest of the Historical Jesus. A Critical Study of its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede.

[31] Our Lady of Soledad Parish Web site. http://www.soledad-coachella.org/en/index.html

[32] Our Lady of Soledad Parish Web site. http://www.soledad-coachella.org/en/help/help/purpose.html

[33] Purpose Driven Church "Goes Catholic".  http://www.catholic.org/prwire/headline.php?ID=1306.

[34] Tim Challies. The Myth Of Mother Teresa. http://www.challies.com/articles/the-myth-of-mother-teresa

[35] Evelyn Underhill, Mysticism. New York: Image Books, Doubleday, 1990, pg. 295. or see

[36] III. Mysticism and Psychology. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/underhill/mysticism.iii.iii.html

[36b] http://www.psychic101.com/automatic-writing.htmlhttp://www.psychic101.com/automatic-writing.html

[37] Arthur Conan Doyle. The New Revelation. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1638/1638-h/1638-h.htm#chap0202

[38] http://awakenlight.org/about

[39] Vera Nadine Bóinn. What is Automatic Writing? http://awakenlight.org/what-is-automatic-writing

[40] Bob Olson Automatic Writing, An Alternate Method Of Spirit Communication.

[41] How to Do Automatic Writing. http://www.psychicbutsane.com/developing-psychic-abilities-spirit-world/how-to-do-automatic-writing

[42] http://www.psychicbutsane.com/intuition/whos-my-higher-selfhttp://www.erinpavlina.com/about-erin-pavlina/

[43] http://www.erinpavlina.com/about-erin-pavlina/

[44] Erin Pavlina Automatic Writing: What is it? http://www.erinpavlina.com/blog/2007/06/automatic-writing-what-is-it/

[45] http://www.crystalinks.com/automatic_writing.html

[46] Experiencing the Depths of Jesus Christ by Jeanne Guyon (1685). Christian Books Pub House; 3rd edition (June 1, 1981) Pg.10

[47] Richard Foster. Devotional Classics. Harper SanFrancisco (June 11, 1993) Paperback) Pg. 321

[48] Neale Donald Walsch, Friendship with God, Published by Berkley Trade (October 1, 2002). Pgs. 335–336.

[49] Bernie Siegel. Love, Medicine & Miracles (New York: Harper Collins Publishers: Harper Perennial, 1998), Pgs 18–20

[50] Warren Smith. ‘Deceived on Purpose .. The New Age Implications of the Purpose-Driven Church’ Chapter 5 - Enter Robert Schuller. http://www.cephas-library.com/purposedriven/purposedriven_na_implications_of_the_purpose_driven_church.html

[51] http://www.ccel.org/ccel/lawrence/practice.iv.xi.html

[52] Brother Lawrence, The Practice of the Presence of God. Revell; Reprinted edition (February 1, 1967) Page 98

[53] Brother Lawrence. Practice of the Presence of God: The Best Rule of Holy Life. Fifth Letter.

[54] Jan Johnson, When the Soul Listens: Finding Rest and Direction in Contemplative Prayer, (NavPress: 1999). Pg. 16

[55] Mysticism, an Evangelical Option? by Winfried Corduan

[56] Caroline Reynolds. Spiritual Fitness: How To Live in Truth and Trust. DeVorss & Company (March 30, 2005) Pgs 105-106

[57] Richard Foster. Celebration of Discipline. HarperSanFrancisco; 3rd edition (October 5, 1988) Hardcover. Pgs. 22-23

[58] Rick Warren. The Purpose Driven Churc.h Zondervan (November 16, 1995) Hardcover Pg. 126

[59] Richard Foster Prayer: Finding the Heart’s True Home. HarperOne; 1 edition (August 14, 1992) Pgs.128-130

[60] ibid. Pgs. 156-157

[61] Praying Unceasingly http://www.gty.org/resources/sermons/52-28/praying-unceasingly

[62] http://www.garythomas.com/sacred-pathways

[63] Gary Thomas. Sacred Pathways. Published by Zondervan. 2010. Paperback. Pg 186

[64] http://www.garythomas.com/sacred-marriage

[65] Serious Concerns for Focus on the Family's Marriage Conference

[66] http://www.garythomas.com/free-resources

[67] Florence Littauer. http://www.classervices.com/FlorenceLittauer.html

[68] https://timlahaye.com/shopexd.asp?id=147

[69] Tim LaHaye & Psychoheresy. http://www.psychoheresy-aware.org/lahaye74.html


Index To The Purpose Driven Life