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 Fundamentalism: Contrasting Christianity and Islam

By Christian Information Foundation [www.FaithFacts.org]

Please Note: Each coloured link within the article will lead you to a related topic on a different page of this site. However, while the text is part of the original article, the links are not. The author of this article may, or may not, agree with the views expressed on those pages, or anything else on this site..

Comparing Jesus With Other Religious Leaders... Why Jesus Is Without Equal
The claim to authority made by the founders of most religions, is generally based on visions they claim to have had, and/or their own experiences or wisdom. However, since anyone can claim to be divine, be divinely inspired, or have mystical visions or experiences, all of these religions stand or fall on something which no one can prove or disprove. All we have to go on is what the founder of the religion said (blind faith), and whether the teachings seem to work in our own lives. Good Enough? It shouldn’t be.

Also See   Why Islam and the Christian Faith Clash (Below)

Fundamentalism Defined
Similarities between Christianity and Islam
Overall Tone of the Two Religions
Treatment of Women
The Nature of God
The Nature of Man
The Quran
The Hadiths
The Bible
Jesus and Muhammad
Summary and Invitation


Fundamentalism Defined
The term fundamentalist has come to be a pejorative term. However, it need not be. Fundamentalism is a synonym for orthodoxy. A religious fundamentalist is one who is faithful to the tenets of his religion.

It is common today to profess or practice a religion in ways that are not orthodox. There are, for example, nominal Christians, nominal Muslims, or nominal Jews, etc. They take on the label of the religion, but not the beliefs or practices. They may even attend worship services, but in their own mind reject many of the core beliefs.

To get an understanding of Christianity and Islam, we consider irrelevant what Sally and Omar may improvise about their respective religions. Anybody can make up their own religion, for example, by taking from the Bible whatever they want and tearing out the pages they don't want. But this is disingenuous, hypocritical, eternally dangerous— and is probably heretical to whichever religion one claims allegiance. On what basis does one claim to know more about the religion than the founders of the religion themselves?

We are interested in exploring here what the source documents say concerning these two major world religions, Christianity and Islam. That is, we will explore and compare the Bible and the Quran (plus the written traditions of Islam).

As we compare orthodox (that is fundamental) Christianity and orthodox (fundamental) Islam, we hope to speak to a variety of audiences, including:

    Those people who sincerely want to learn more about these two religions. Most Christians know very little about Islam (the Muslim religion). Likewise, most Muslims have mistaken ideas about Christianity. Indeed, many people of both faiths do not even know enough about their own religion to validate its truth claims.

    We also are addressing those people who are under the false belief that all religions are equally valid, or that all religions lead to God. We will clearly show that Christianity and Islam are irreconcilable.

Let us say this also at the outset. As noted on the home page of our website, our organization is dedicated to exploring God through reason and evidence. Many people, including Christians, Muslims, atheists (or whoever) resist using reason and evidence. "Don't confuse me with the facts!" If you are in this camp, you may be wasting your time—even made uncomfortable—by reading this article. But if you are seriously interested in pursuing truth, the following discussion should be extremely interesting.

Truth is discernible. At least, what is not true is discernible. Applying rules of logic, one can show that a truth-claim is not true by identifying arbitrariness or inconsistency in the claim.

By using the same techniques as used in a court of law, one can determine truth beyond a reasonable doubt. Such techniques— in addition to using reason and evidence to verify facts— include an evaluation of witnesses (number of witness, motives of witnesses, corroboration of testimony, etc.) These same techniques are used to determine truth-claims in any discipline, including religious truth-claims.

We offer detailed references from the Bible, the Quran, and the Bukhari Hadiths so that the interested reader can check the sources himself. We invite you to do so.

    Hadiths ("ahadiths") are written compilations ("traditions") of the sayings and actions of Muhammad. Muhammad's example and authority are prominent in Islam. The hadiths, along with the Quran, are meant to govern every aspect of life, including civil law. There are several collections of hadiths, but the one compiled by Bukhari (or "Al-Bukhari" or "Sahih Bukhari"), who lived 200 years after Muhammad, is considered very important, especially by Sunni Muslims. We will reference Bukhari primarily in our article, but will also reference the hadiths collected by "Sahih Muslim," who was a student of Bukhari.

Some background for our non-Muslim readers might be helpful. There are several Muslim sects. Sunni Muslims represent about 85% of the world's Muslim population. The second largest sect is Shiite. There is disagreement among the various sects on some issues, not unlike theological disagreements among Christian denominations.

Note: One thing that is confusing to English speaking people is that the English spelling of Arabic words is not standardized! For example, Moslem is a variant spelling for Muslim.

The Bible, the Quran, and the hadiths are available online. One source for the Bible is http://bible.gospelcom.net/. There are several sources for the Quran and Hadiths online that can be found through a search engine. One source is http://www.answering-islam.org.

The Quran is divided into 114 chapters called Suras. A designation of, for example, 10:1 means Sura 10, verse 1.

    The Bukhari Hadiths are divided into nine volumes, then various books, then hadiths by number. The numbering system is governed by the volumes, not the books. So, a designation of 5:416 means volume 5, hadith number 416. Bukhari is usually presented online in book order, so you might have to hunt for a few seconds to get the correct volume. It might help to use the following table. Here are the nine volumes, with the book number at which the volume begins being in parentheses: 1 (1), 2 (13), 3 (27), 4 (51), 5 (57), 6 (60), 7 (62), 8 (73), 9 (83). The Muslim Hadiths are numbered consecutively, uninterrupted for the entire collection.

Similarities between Christianity and Islam
Christians and Muslims have some beliefs in common. We both agree that there is one God who created the universe and is sovereign in the lives of men. We agree that God is the source of justice and morality. We agree that his ultimate justice is dispensed via life after death in heaven and hell.

Fundamentalist Christians and fundamentalist Muslims both consider such things as pornography and licentious living as pollutants to society. In fact, one of the reasons for the strong negative reaction to western civilization in Muslim countries is the influence of such practices emanating from the west.

But there are many things upon which we disagree. The points of disagreement touch on every important religious doctrine. Indeed, the disagreements are so severe as to be irreconcilable. We will look at these issues point by point.

Overall Tone of the Two Religions
Most Muslims are exceptionally gracious and peace-loving people. And Islam has many elements of peacefulness in it. However, anyone who wants to commit violence has perfect justification for doing so from the Quran. While violence in the Quran is sometimes for self-defense; at other times it is open-ended. Many passages in the Quran exhort Muslims to kill infidels (non-Muslims) wherever they find them. See Suras 2:190-193, 2:216, 4:76, 5:32-36, 8:12-14, 8:39, 8:59, 8:65, 9:5, 9:14, 9:23-29, 9:38-41, 9:123, 47:4, 47:35, 61:4, and 66:9.

See Section Does Islam Promote Peace on THIS Page.

Usama bin Laden in the now famous videotape discovered in Afghanistan in late 2001 is quoted as saying, "I was ordered to fight the people until they say there is no god but Allah, and his prophet Muhammad." These words echo language in the Quran itself.

But the Quran is not the only basis for violence in Islam. The example of Muhammad himself laid the foundation for violence via his deeds and commands, which are found in the hadiths. Eleven percent of the pages of the Bukhari Hadiths mention Holy War (jihad). Military jihad is a traditional and authentic part of Islam.

There are two meanings for jihad. One meaning is a personal spiritual aspect to kill sinful desires. It also means to use violence to spread the faith. Muslims are taught that those who fight and die in a jihad have their sins forgiven, and they are rewarded with a sensual and luxurious life in paradise. See Suras 3:157-158, 3:169-171, 3:194-195, 4:74, 4:94-97, 22:58-59, 52:17-23, 56:10-38. Also see Bukhari 4:63, 72, 80, 85, 137, 175, 216, 266. So the killing of non-Muslims offers the religion's highest reward.

Muhammad first claimed to have a vision from God in the year 610 AD. The first 13 years of his ministry were marked by peaceful preaching in the city of Mecca. During this period Muhammad seems to have been a well-meaning man who sought to oppose paganism and evil in his day.

However, in the year 623 he became a political leader in the city of Medina. With his political power came a new aggressive behavior. He attacked pagan caravans and used the sword to spread his religion.

Muhammad personally led at least 27 bloody invasions (some say more than 60) and ordered his followers to wage many more. Muhammad assassinated many of his opponents during his lifetime. In his battle against the Quraiza Jews, women and children were sold into slavery, and hundreds of captured men were executed. Even some of his own people were horrified.

The tradition of violence in Islam, which started with Muhammad, continues to this day. There is worldwide evidence that some Muslims kill or otherwise persecute people solely for being non-Muslims. This is well documented in Nigeria, Algeria, Sudan (where modern slavery is documented), Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and Malaysia. One source for some of the evidence on this can be found in the video series listed below (hour 6 of the 8-hour program). You could also email the speakers on the video at cdebater@aol.com for further documentation.

According to the organization the Voice of the Martyrs (website http://www.persecution.com/ or search for Voice of the Martyrs) 160,000 Christians are killed annually because of their faith— the vast majority being killed by Muslims. If Islam claims to be a religion of peace, why is there so much oppression in every Muslim country?

In the audio tape series listed at the end of this essay, Abdul Saleeb quotes from a PBS Frontline documentary called "Saudi Time Bomb?" According to the program, Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education textbooks contained, as of the year 2000, a most disturbing teaching. The teaching, which is from the hadiths (Bukhari 4:176-177) as taught by Muhammad himself, is required instruction for all middle school children in Saudi Arabia. The teaching which is entitled "The Victory of Muslims Over Jews," says:

    "The last hour won't come before the Muslims would fight the Jews, and the Muslims will kill them. So Jews would hide behind rocks and trees. Then the rocks and trees would call, 'Oh, Muslim. Oh, Servant of God. There is a Jew behind me. Come and kill him.' "

Included with the text is a list of principles, including the following:

    "Jews and Christians are the enemies of believers. They will never approve of the Muslims. Beware of them."

Yes, the Bible has its share of violence as well, particularly in the Old Testament. For example, God instructs the Israelites coming out of Egypt to take over the land of Canaan and kill all of the inhabitants. However, there is a clear difference from Quranic violence.

The Bible makes it clear that the Canaanite society deserved it as it was thoroughly polluted by their wretchedly evil practices, including the horror of child sacrifice. (Deuteronomy 9:1-6, 12:29-31, 18:9-14, 1 Kings 14:24, 2 Chronicles 33:1-9, Ezra 9:11) Thus God used the Israelites to administer specific justice, just as he later used other societies to administer justice against the Israelites (book of Jeremiah).

Instances such as this in the Bible are each a particular limited circumstance in time, for a particular purpose established by God. But in the Quran, we encounter general commands to kill and destroy the enemies of Islam that are applicable for all times and places and people groups.

See Was Joshua’s Conquest Justified?

While there is indeed violence in the Bible, one thing is certain— Jesus had a non-violent message. While some people have betrayed the peaceful message of Jesus in history, the teachings of Jesus have a consistent tone of peace, service, love, and humility. Jesus is the Prince of Peace. He never told us to kill anyone, and he disdained violence. Just a few of the numerous biblical passages that could be cited are: Matthew 5:1-12, 5:43-44, 9:36, 19:30, 26:50-52, Mark 9:35, Luke 6:27-36, 9:54-55, 10:30-37, 22:49-51, 23:32-34, John 10:7-18, 13:1-17, Galatians 5:22-23, Philippians 2:6-8, 1 Thessalonians 5:15, and 1 Peter 3:8-9. We encourage you to read these moving passages now, and then consider what the world would be like if everyone practiced the teachings of Jesus.

    Jesus warned, "The time is coming when anyone who kills you will think he is offering a service to God" (John 16:2-4). While these words were spoken to his disciples, they have a powerful ring today.

There is nothing like the Christian concept of "love your enemies" or "turn your other cheek" (Luke 6:27-37) found in Islam. While Christianity says to love your neighbor as yourself (Matthew 19:19), the Quran instructs its followers not to even take Christians or Jews as friends (Suras 3:118, 5:51, 64, 60:1-3)!

Another interesting point is that the Islamic concept of charity is different from the Christian concept. Muslims are required to give alms to the poor, but only to the Muslim poor. In this way, the Muslim's remaining wealth is purified. The biblical concept of charity is not limited to any group. In fact, Jesus used illustrations that encouraged helping those outside the faith (Luke 10:30-37).

Islam is a religion of power and glory. Muslims find it hard to believe that Christians could worship Jesus, given his lack of political power and apparent defeat by the authorities. (They fail to acknowledge that Jesus was the ultimate victor as he conquered even death.)

Islam is more than a religion; it is an ideology with a clear sociopolitical agenda. There is no such thing as separation of church and state in orthodox Islam. Western notions of democracy and freedom are in opposition to orthodox Islam. Mankind must be controlled by Islamic law in total, and not be allowed to stray from the authority of Allah. As Dr. Samuel Schlorff, an expert on Islam with Arab World Ministries puts it, "Muslims believe that Islam's destiny is to extend its control until the whole Dar al-Harb [which means "House of War"— that is, the whole non-Muslim world] is subject to Islamic law in an Islamic state, and this includes the use of force." The fact that freedom of religion does not exist in Muslim countries is evidence supporting the view that Islam wants nothing short of domination through political control.

There is a credible tradition in Islam that says that there are three reasons someone may be killed: murder, adultery, or leaving Islam (apostasy). See Suras 4:89 and 9:12. For detailed documentation of this see articles on the Internet at http://www.answering-islam.org and search for "apostate." At least one Muslim country, Pakistan, has a blasphemy law. This law says that anyone who insults Muhammad may be put to death.

An interesting observation made by R. C. Sproul on the audio tape listed below is that historically the more a society has used the Quran as a source of law, the more oppressive the state becomes. But the more a society has used the Bible as a source of law, the more freedom the society has demonstrated.

One commonly hears in the press that Islam is a religion of peace. This is true only in one sense— peace will come when all competing religions have been brought into submission to Islam (Sura 9:29). Muslims who say Islam is a religion of peace, can only say so by ignoring or rationalizing away its violent commands.

These issues explain why Muslim leaders around the world were so subdued in their condemnation of the 9/11/01 attack on America. Even in America, the common response was, "Yes, the attack was wrong, but....." It is what follows the "but" that is important in understanding their real views.

However the statements made by Islamic leaders at conferences held in the United States and attended by thousands were not quite so subdued. DETAILS

Muslims are taught that the Old Testament is like grade school; the New Testament is like high school; and the Quran is like college. Islam claims to be the final, most perfect religion. If so, why does it seem to revert back to unjustified violence even worse than the Old Testament? Sadly, Islam has a dark side, and there is no way to explain it away by appealing to context.

Muslims who commit aggressive acts of violence are acting consistently with fundamentalist Islam. Christians who might commit aggressive acts of violence are acting contrary to fundamentalist Christianity.

Treatment of Women
In Islam, a man can have up to four wives at the same time (Sura 4:3). In addition, a man can beat his disobedient wife (Sura 4:34, Bukhari 8:68). An example of Muhammad himself beating his wife is documented in the Sahih Muslim Hadith, number 2127. (Note, the Arabic word for beat is the same word as how you would treat a slave or a camel.)

Muhammad himself actually had sixteen wives, two concubines/slaves, and four women of uncertain relationships. Of note, a Sura conveniently appeared to give Muhammad an exception to the 4-wife rule (Sura 33:50). One of his wives was but nine years old when he married her.

Also of interest, Muhammad married his daughter-in-law Zainab (Bukhari 9:516-518). He arranged for his adopted son Zaid to divorce Zainab so he could marry her. The divorce was prompted by the prophet's admiration for Zainab's beauty. Faced with the refusal of Zaid to dissolve his marriage, Muhammad had another convenient revelation from Allah, which not only commanded Zaid to give up his wife to Muhammad, but also decreed that there was no evil in a father-in-law taking his daughter-in-law away from his own adopted son (Sura 33:36-38).

Men are superior to women in Islamic teaching. (See Suras 2:228, 4:34. Note: English translations vary considerably here. For example, in 4:34 some use the term "superior," while others say that men are "maintainers" or "guardians" of women.) In Islamic law, a woman's testimony is worth half that of men because the female mind is considered deficient (Sura 2:282, Bukhari 3:826). Women are only entitled to inherit half of what men do (Sura 4:11).

Prostitution is common in some Muslim countries, especially Africa. Some Muslims justify prostitution by marrying the woman for the night, which seems to be okay as long as they stay within the limit of four wives at one time. Prostitution may be partly a result of the attitude in Muslim societies that men can do whatever they want, while women have limited rights.

The Quran and hadiths teach that it is morally acceptable to force women to have sex with their captors (Sura 70:29-30; also Bukhari 3: 432, 436, 5:459, 7:22, 8:600; 9:506; also Muslim Hadiths numbers 3371 and 3433). According to a reliable witness we personally know who grew up in Pakistan, rape is not prosecuted even today in the Muslim world in some circumstances, especially if the victim is a non-Muslim.

Men can divorce their wives in Islam, but the wife does not have that right (Sura 2:228). And interestingly, Islam teaches that the majority of people in hell are women (Bukhari 1:28, 1:301, and 2:161).

In comparison, fundamentalist Christianity condones none of the above abuses of women. While Old Testament figures had multiple wives, this is seen as sinful behavior. Jesus insisted on the sanctity of marriage with one woman (Mark 10:5-12).

Two books of the Old Testament are named for (and are about) women. Women play a venerated and prominent role in the New Testament, especially in view of the low status afforded women in the culture in which Jesus lived (Matthew 5:32, 1 Corinthians 11:11-12, Galatians 3:28, Ephesians 5:25-33.)

The history of Christianity has elevated the position of women. For example, it was largely through the efforts of Christian missionaries in India that stopped the horrible practice of women being burned on their husband's funeral pyre.  [Also See On Site Section on Women]

The Nature of God
Islam is set up to specifically oppose Christianity on every important doctrine. For example, Christianity teaches that God is a Trinity— one God revealed in three persons (or manifestations). Islam, however, vehemently denies the Trinity as blasphemy (Suras 4:171, 5:17, 5:72-75). Accepting the Christian view of God is the only unpardonable sin in Islam, and condemns one to hell. While Islam has a high view of Jesus, it denies his divinity or that Jesus was the Son of God (Suras 9:30, 10:68, 19:35, 43:81-83).

There is a law of logic called the "Law of Non-Contradiction," which says that two contradictory things cannot both be true. At least one of them has to be false. This point of tension regarding the nature of God between the two religions is so great that it is clear that at least one of them must be false. Either the Trinity is a correct description of God as Christianity proclaims, or it is a false description of God as the Quran proclaims.

Muslims, as well as others, who have not studied the evidence for the deity of Christ find it understandably hard to accept Jesus as both 100% man and 100% God. While we will not take the time to present the evidence in this article, the Geisler/Saleeb book (from the list below) has an outstanding discussion of the Trinity and the deity of Christ.

InPlainsite.org Note: I have not read the recommended book and therefore can not endorse it. However read onsite article on the Trinity HERE and articles on the Deity of Jesus on THIS Page.

Christians do not take the belief in the deity of Christ on blind faith. The evidence itself has convinced many a skeptic. Simon Greenleaf, a professor of law at Harvard in the 1800's— a man who is considered the greatest authority on legal evidences in history— became a Christian after a thorough examination of the evidence.

Anyone truly interested in religion should examine the evidence for yourself. The evidence demands a verdict. If Jesus is truly who he claimed to be, we are under judgment.

See Section Why Christianity?

It should be said here that Muslims hold some mistaken views of Christian doctrine. Contrary to several passages in the Quran, Christians do not hold to three Gods! The Bible makes it very clear that there is only one God (Deuteronomy 6:4, Isaiah 43:10, Mark 12:29, 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6). Rather, there are three aspects to God's nature— Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Also, Muslims think that the Christian term "Son of God" means that God the Father had carnal sexual relations with Mary, producing Jesus. That is incorrect. The term Son of God is a symbolic term only, implying the unique relationship Jesus has to God. [See Footnote]

There are other differences between the two religions as to the nature of God. To Muslims, God is distant and unknowable. His relationship to man is that of master/slave. He is not the personal God that Christians know and trust.

The God of the Bible is described as being love itself (1 John 4:7-21). The God of the Bible goes out of his way to find a single lost sheep (Matthew 18:10-14). And the God of the Bible opens his arms to offer comfort and assurance (Deuteronomy 1:31, Hosea 11:1-4, Isaiah 40:11, Matthew 11:25-30), as a father would for his children. This concept of God is absent in Islam.

Islamic theology holds that God is good because he causes good. But goodness is not part of his essence.

Another very important difference is that the God of the Bible is holy— that is perfect in all respects. He is perfectly moral, perfectly just, perfectly faithful, perfectly loving, all-knowing, etc. Another synonym for holy is pure (Hebrews 7:26).

But the God of the Quran does not always come across as holy. He changes his mind, changes his promises, and does not offer assurance of salvation. Allah is arbitrary (Suras 4:116, 5:18, 9:15, 25:51). Also, Allah deceives people (Bukhari 8:577 and 9:532). Compare this to the God of the Bible— with whom it is impossible to lie (Hebrews 6:18) or to treat people unfairly. The God of the Bible is not arbitrary, but rather is perfect in his justice. If you do a search of the words holiness or holy as applied to God, you will see how dominant this concept is in Scripture.

Muslims today say that Allah is merely the Arabic word for God. While this is true, it is not the whole story. There is substantial evidence that Allah has roots in pre-Islamic paganism. There were 360 idols (gods) worshipped in Mecca at the time of Muhammad. The supreme god of the Quraish tribe (from which Muhammad came) was Allah. Muhammad's father's name was Abd-Allah, which means "slave of Allah." This supports the notion that the concept of Allah has its roots in pagan gods.

While not substantiated, some people say that Allah has elements of the pagan moon god, a dominant deity in pagan Arabia. To this day, the crescent moon is a symbol of Islam, and Muslims use a lunar calendar. (For more information search this website: http://www.answering-islam.org.)

The Quraish tribe had a custom of praying five times a day to Mecca, had pilgrimages to Mecca, and had a sacred month. These things are an integral part of modern Islam. Such practices also tie Islam to pre-Islamic paganism. Actually, Islam appears to be an amalgamation of paganism, Judaism, Christianity, other world religions, and a healthy dose of power politics.

In the modern world, Muslims recognize that Allah is not the God of the Bible. The evidence for that is the continual persecution of Christians in Muslim countries. Countries such as Malaysia have decreed that Christians may not even use "Allah" in their Bibles, books, or hymns. They often confiscate non-Muslim literature that uses the word "Allah." Why would Muslims take such a harsh view of Christianity if they thought they worshipped the same God as Christians?

Those who say that Christians and Muslims worship the same God are incorrect. In the two religions, God is defined differently and has different and contradictory attributes. The views of God between the two religions are incompatible.

The Nature of Man
Christianity insists that man is fallen— that we are "dead in our sins"— that we are in fact incapable of standing up to a holy and righteous God. Islam, on the other hand, says that humankind is weak and forgetful but not fallen. Islam teaches that man is capable of righteousness— all he has to do is just do it. The difference has far-reaching implications.

First, examine the evidence. All of history is a testimony to the sinfulness of man. Examining ourselves, we only do good if it suits our mood. We certainly do not always love God above everything else, nor love our neighbor as ourselves. None of us keeps all of the Ten Commandments all the time. Parents do not need to teach a child to be bad (selfish or mean); it comes quite naturally, thank you. Everyone has a conscience, and if we are honest we must acknowledge how far short we fall of God's perfect standard. As a result, we must face the judgment of a holy God.

The Bible says that whoever stumbles at just one point of the law is guilty of breaking all of it (James 2:10). An agnostic friend of ours, who considers himself to be a moral person once expressed doubt about his own sinfulness. We asked him this question, "If someone goes into a store a hundred times without stealing anything, but one time does steal something, is he guilty or innocent?" "Guilty!" he exclaimed.

So it is. We are all guilty and deserve punishment. But we are not just guilty once. We are all guilty all the time!

We never have perfect love, justice, or acceptance. We often live as if God does not matter. Our faith is continually subject to wavering. We constantly are inclined to trust ourselves rather than God. We are always subject to feelings of revenge, lust, hatred, jealousy, and covetousness. Selfishness dominates our daily lives. We stubbornly deny truth in favor of what we wish were true.

Hypocrisy is such an obvious problem that it is a common complaint toward even religious people. Our narrow-minded attitude is a perpetual trap for prejudice and indifference. While we are perhaps not as bad as we could be, sin touches every aspect of our lives. Sin is exceedingly sinful!

In addition to its theological implications, the variant views on the nature of man have significant sociopolitical implications. As expressed by Chuck Colson of Prison Fellowship ministries, "The Islamic worldview denies the sinfulness of man, which gives rise to utopian visions: If man is corrupted by society, then those who come to power can create the perfect society by strictly enforcing Islamic law."

Ironically, this is not unlike communism, which is based on the notion that man is basically good, or at least can be perfected by government. But states based on such utopian concepts have always been failures and are particularly oppressive to its citizens

The difference between Islam and Christianity on the nature of man is not trivial. If Christianity is correct on this point, the practice of Islam is futile because their effort will not get them into heaven. If Islam is correct, the whole purpose of Jesus' sacrificial death and resurrection was a useless sham.

Islam has an incomplete view of both the holiness of God and the sinfulness of mankind. Given man's sinful nature and the gap it creates between us and a holy God, Christianity teaches that man cannot earn salvation. God cannot just wink at sin. We need a savior who will bridge the gap and who will pay the penalty for us. Salvation is only in Christ's finished work on the cross that God considers our blemishes healed. This is what Christianity is all about.

As it says in the Bible, in the sight of a holy God all of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous acts are like filthy rags (Isaiah 64:5-7). But God demonstrated his love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us (Romans 5:8). What wonderful good news!

But Islam denies all of this. It even denies that Jesus died on the cross at all (Sura 4:157)— this in spite of overwhelming evidence both from the Bible and from historical sources outside the Bible. It denies that Jesus conquered death by his bodily resurrection— an historical event acknowledged by rigorous critical scholarship. Islam must deny these things because the religion is based on the idea that you can earn your way to heaven.

[See The Resurrection]

Christianity teaches that our salvation is a free gift through faith alone in Jesus Christ— and specifically not by works (Ephesians 2:8-9, Romans 4:1-3, 1 Timothy 1:8-10, Titus 3:5-7, 1 Corinthians 1:29). Islam teaches that one gains entrance into heaven by your works in addition to faith (but not faith in Christ). These are clearly opposing positions.

Christianity insists that belief in Christ is the only way to heaven. Rejection of Christ dooms us to the eternal punishment we deserve as rebellious sinners. (Mark 16:16, John 3:16-18, 36, John 10:7-10, John 12:48, John 14:6, Acts 4:12, Galatians 1:6-9, Philippians 2:9-11, 2 Thessalonians 1:8-10, 1 Timothy 2:5, 2 Peter 2:1, 1 John 2:22-23, 1 John 5:12-13.) While this may seem unfair in one sense, in another sense it is the ultimate in fairness. God provided a way for sinful man— who otherwise falls helplessly short— to be forgiven and to come into communion with him!

Because the Christian doctrine of salvation through Christ alone so often draws accusations of intolerance from non-Christians, it may be helpful to say a bit more about it. One thing that this doctrine does not say, is that those who have never heard of Christ are automatically doomed. It is also clear that it is not Christians who can judge, but only God. God alone can know the heart of each individual. God loves everyone, including non-Christians, and he wants everyone to come to the knowledge of a saving faith. But it also clear through this doctrine that anyone who consciously rejects Christ is rejecting God's offer of reconciliation. In this case, one gets what he wants, an eternity without God.

Islam is equally exclusive in its claims, as it teaches that only Muslims will go to heaven (Bukhari 4:297, etc). Islam similarly insists that anyone who rejects their Allah and his apostles (read Muhammad) is condemned to hell. So, again, the two religions are at loggerheads.

While Christians believe that salvation is assured through faith, Muslims never have assurance of salvation (except probably through martyrdom in a jihad— Sura 9:20-22, etc). Islam teaches that at the end of your life, Allah weighs your good works against your bad works on a scale. In general, if your good works are adequate, you get to heaven (Sura 23:103). But even then it is not assured because Allah can let anyone in he chooses (Sura 9:15, 27). Muhammad himself expressed doubts about his own salvation (Bukhari 5:266, 9:131).

    For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only son— that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have everlasting life (John 3:16).

    Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; and he who does not believe the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him (John 3:36).

If the Bible is correct, the logical conclusion is that belief in the teachings of Islam does not lead to heaven.

There is a difference between the two religions as to what heaven is like. The Muslim concept of paradise is a carnal, sensual place. Muslims in paradise will live in gorgeous palaces and will wear silk clothes. While alcohol is forbidden on earth, they will drink from rivers of wine, milk, and honey in paradise! Men will also make love to dozens of virgins devoted to sensuous enjoyments. (It is not clear what women get!!) See Suras 2:25, 4:57, 13:35, 36:55-57, 37:39-48, 47:15, 52:20-23, 55:46-78, 56:12-40, and 76:5-22. Also see Bukhari 4:466.

This picture seems strange to Christians, who believe in a heaven unmarred by carnal things. The Bible says that the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking (Romans 14:17). In heaven people will not be married, but will be like angels (Matthew 22:30). And in heaven we will have resurrected perfect bodies— the pain and tears will be gone (Revelation 21:4). This perfect place of happiness is for men, women, and children equally.

The Quran
Muslims are taught that the Quran is perfectly preserved, word-by-word, syllable-by-syllable, and letter-for-letter. Indeed, the Quran is the actual, literal (and pre-existent) word of God. Muslims think so highly of the Quran, that one could say that they worship it. In this sense, all Muslims are fundamentalists. It has been said that the closest comparison to it in Christianity is Christ himself.

However, let us consider the evidence to see if this assumption is valid. The history of the Quran is most interesting. For the benefit of our Muslim readers, we will liberally document essential points from reliable Muslims sources.

Muhammad claimed to begin having revelations from God when he was 40 years old. It is generally believed that Muhammad was illiterate, which Muslims think is a testimony to the miracle of Quran.

People memorized things Muhammad said or they wrote them down on palm leaves, rocks, and bones (Bukhari 6:509). Bukhari also records that Muhammad allowed some variation regarding the recitation of the Quran (Bukhari 3:593, 601, 4:442, 6:514, and 9:640).

The following situation between Muhammad and his associate Abdollah b. Abi Sarh, recorded in Islamic hadiths, should be interesting to our Muslim readers (source: the Geisler/Saleeb book on the list below, page 157):

    "On a number of occasions he had, with the Prophet's consent, changed the closing words of verses. For example, when the Prophet has said, 'And God is mighty and wise' ('aziz, hakim), 'Abdollah b. Abi Sarh suggested writing down 'knowing and wise' ('alim, hakim), and the Prophet answered that there was no objection. Having observed a succession of changes of this type, 'Abdollah renounced Islam on the ground that the revelations, if from God, could not be changed at the prompting of a scribe such as himself. After his apostasy he went to Mecca and joined the Qorayshites."

Sarh was later killed. Did he know too much? Geisler/Saleeb (page 157) relate yet another item of interest: "It is also an accepted fact in Sunni tradition that on a few occasions Quranic revelations were prompted by the suggestions of Muhammad's loyal follower, Umar b. al-Khattab."

There was no organized manuscript of the Quran prior to Muhammad's death (Bukhari 6:509). Shortly after his death, it was noticed that some of the people who had memorized parts of the Quran were being killed in battle. Some verses did not survive as the people who remembered them died or verses were otherwise lost (Bukhari 4:62, 6:509-11, 527, 550, 552).

There were (at least) four people that were companions of Muhammad who compiled the Quran: Masud, Salim, Mu'adh, and Ubai (Bukhari 6:521, 526). Even though these men were all authorized by Muhammad himself and each version was widely accepted, these versions were not identical (Bukhari 6:468, and 6:527).

It was another man named Uthman who standardized the Quran. Incredibly, this man had rival texts of the Quran burned about 19 years after Muhammad's death (Bukhari 6:510).

The question must be asked, why did he do so unless the other copies were different? In fact, a few copies survived the burning and they vary somewhat from the Uthman manuscript. It is also clear that Uthman edited and selected Suras for his version. Uthman's copy did not contain several Suras collected by Ubai, who was one of the four authorized compilers. Further, it may surprise some Muslims that none of the original Uthman copies is in existence today. The earliest one in existence is from the second century after Muhammad.

Contrary to popular belief, not all Muslims accept the same version of the Quran. While some accept the Uthman version, others accept the tradition of Masud, who was one of the four authorized compilers. This version has 150 variations in the second Sura alone compared to the Uthman text. Arthur Jeffrey's collection of variants between Uthman's text and the Masud text takes 92 pages in his book Materials for the History of the Text of the Quran (Bill, Leiden, 1937).

Another interesting aspect to the Quran is that there were verses in the original version of Muhammad's Quran that have been abrogated, that is, eliminated from the text. In fact, the Quran itself justifies this practice (Suras 2:105-106, 13:39, 16:101, 22:52)! Bukhari also recognizes this (3:170, 4:57, 4:69, 4:299, 5:416, 5:421, 6:8). This practice is unique among world religions. Some Shiite Muslims say that up to 25% of the Quran was removed for political reasons. In our studies, we have not seen evidence to suggest that the practice was that extensive, but there is absolutely no doubt that abrogation did occur.

One famous aspect to the Quran is the so-called "Satanic Verses." Sura 53:19-20 says, "Have ye thought upon al-Lat and al-Uzza and Manat, the third, the other?" According to Bukhari, these three are known to be goddesses of the Quraish tribe. In fact, these three were daughters of pre-Islamic Allah. The original version of the Quran followed with the following words, which were subsequently abrogated: "Those are the swans exalted; Their intercession is expected; Their likes are not neglected." These words are idolatrous because there should be no intercession for pagan goddesses. It is particularly significant because Muhammad was speaking in the name of Allah for the intercession of pagan idols! For more on this including evidences from Muslim scholars, see http://answering-islam.org and then search for "Satanic Verses."

Muslims claim that the literary style of the Quran is evidence for its divine inspiration. But if that is a valid test, they would have to accept that the writings of Homer and Shakespeare as divinely inspired as well. But even Muslim sources recognize that the Quran is not always as eloquent as is claimed. The Iranian Shiite scholar Ali Dashti contends that the Quran contains numerous grammatical problems. He says, "The Quran contains sentences which are incomplete and not fully intelligible without the aid of commentaries..." (Geisler/Saleeb page 187-190).

Even IF the Quran of today were a carbon copy of the one originally dictated by Muhammad, it does not logically follow that it is from God. Irrespective of the quality of today's copy, the internal and external inconsistencies in the Quran disqualify it as being from God.

We have already pointed out some of the mistakes in the Quran. The Quran itself says that if a book is found to have discrepancies, it could not be from God (Sura 4:82). In fact, there are many internal contradictions in the Quran. Here is a sample:

    · The Quran teaches that on the one hand "no change there can be in the Words of God" (Sura 10:64, also 6:34). Yet the Quran itself teaches the doctrine of abrogation.

    · The Quran claims that humans are responsible for their own choices (Sura 18:24). Yet it also claims that God sealed the fate of all in advance (Suras 10:99-100, 17:13).

    · The Quran says emphatically, "Let there be no compulsion in religion" (Sura 2:256). Yet in other places it urges Muslims to "Fight those who believe not" (Sura 9:29).

    · Sura 7:143 says that Moses was the first to believe. Sura 6:14 says Abraham was the first to believe.

    · Suras 7:54, 10:3, and 11:7 say the earth was created in six days, but Sura 41:9-12 says it was created in eight days.

    · The same Mary (Miriam in Hebrew and Arabic) is not both the mother of Jesus and the "sister of Aaron" who lived hundred of years earlier (Sura 19:28).

    · In an apparent contradiction, the Quran denies the divinity of Christ, yet acknowledges that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary (Suras 3:37-45, 19:16-28, 66:12). The hadiths further acknowledge that Jesus was not touched by sin (Bukhari 4:506). An obvious question is: How could Jesus not be divine if he was born of a virgin and was free of sin?

Here is just a sample of external contradictions in the Quran:

    · The Quran presents as a scientific fact that the sun sets in a "muddy spring" (Sura 18:86). However, it has been proven scientifically that this is not true.

    · A famous passage in the Quran says that human beings are formed from a clot of blood (Sura 23:14). This, of course, is an inaccurate description of an embryo.

    · A Samaritan could not have molded the golden calf in Moses' time (Sura 20:85-87, 95-97) because Samaritans did not live in Moses' time.

There are several things found in the Quran about Christian theology that are quite plainly wrong. Sura 5:116 says that Christians believe that Mary is God. Sura 9:30 says that Jews believe that Ezra was the Son of God. These statements are incorrect. There is no evidence that Christians and Jews ever believed these things. What seems to be the most likely explanation why things like this are in the Quran is that there was no Arabic translation of the Bible in the time of Muhammad. Muhammad picked up bits and pieces of Christian and Jewish theology from hearsay and was simply mistaken about it.

There are dozens of contradictions and inaccurate statements in the Quran. For further documentation, go to Answering-Islam and search for "contradictions."

There are several articles at Answering-Islam on the web (http://www.answering-islam.org) that serious students of the development of the Quran may want to explore.

Additional Articles on The Qur’an

In summary, it is clear that Muslim belief in the word-for-word/letter-for-letter preservation of the Quran is incorrect. It is also clear that the claim of an error-free Quran is incorrect. The question we ask our Muslim readers is this,

What else have you been taught that may be incorrect?


The Hadiths
The hadiths are considered extremely important documents, but they are not considered letter-for-letter perfect like the Quran. According to Islamic sources, each report in the Bukhari and Muslim hadiths (also the Sunan Abu-Dawud Hadiths) was checked for compatibility with the Quran and the veracity of the chain of reporters back to Muhammad had to be painstakingly established. The hadiths are used, along with the Quran, to govern every detail of the life of the Muslim— down to toilet habits. (Don't face "Kibla," that is Mecca, when answering the call of nature— Bukhari 1:147).

Because of their importance to Muslim life, a critical review is necessary. There are clearly contradictions and errors in the hadiths. To give a sense of this, consider this hadith:

    "Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, 'If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease.'" (Bukhari 4:537, and 7:673)

This practice is scientifically false. There is no evidence that a wing of a fly has a cure for a disease resting on its other wing. Also consider this passage:

    "And if a man's discharge proceeded that of the woman, then the child resembles the father, and if the woman's discharge proceeded that of the man, then the child resembles the mother." (Bukhari 6:7)

Again, this analysis is obviously wrong scientifically. A child's traits are not determined in this way. A legitimate question is: In the search for truth, what can one expect from the religion of Islam?

There is a quite a bit of other material in the hadiths that falls in the category of just plain interesting. Consider this passage from Bukhari 4:516, which offers insight into the blind acceptance Muslims have for Muhammad,

    "The Prophet said, 'If anyone of you rouses from sleep and performs the ablution [ritual washing], he should wash his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out thrice, because Satan has stayed in the upper part of his nose all night.'" A footnote to the printed volume says, "We should believe that Satan actually stays in the upper part of one's nose, though we cannot perceive how, for this is related to the unseen world of which we know nothing except what Allah tells through his apostle."

Muslims sometimes point to the Old Testament dietary laws as comparable concepts from the Bible. But one difference is the Old Testament dietary laws have not been found to have any scientific errors. Further, the New Testament specifically overrides those cultural practices as no longer being appropriate (Matthew 15:11, 17-18, Mark 7:14-15, Acts 10:9-15, Romans 14:17).

For more information about hadiths, go to http://www.answering-islam.org and search for "hadith." A particularly interesting listing of hadith subjects can be viewed at http://answering-islam.org/Silas/indexintro.htm. Take the time to look at this latter link.

The Bible
Like the Quran for Muslims, the Bible for Christians is considered to be the "Word of God." But Christians do not mean exactly the same thing as Muslims when they use this term. Believers in the historic orthodox Christian faith believe that the Bible is "inspired" by God, and believe that the original manuscripts of the Bible are without error ("inerrant" or "infallible.") But they also accept the view that the Bible has come to us from human writers whose unique personalities and literary styles are evident. Christians also acknowledge that the Bible of today, while extremely faithful to the original texts, is subject to slight variances.

Muslims have been taught that the Bible has been grossly corrupted. Many non-Muslims wonder about this possibility as well. Therefore, it is appropriate to submit the Bible to rigorous scholarly testing. This is a vital exercise because the Christian faith rests on the reliability of the Bible. Let us just touch on a few points.

Yusuf Ali, the famous modern translator and commentator of the Quran, has said that the earliest date for an Old Testament manuscript is 916 AD. This is quite wrong. In 1947 there was a discovery of ancient biblical and non-biblical manuscripts now known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. These manuscripts contain portions of or complete copies of every Old Testament book except Esther. They have been reliably dated from 250 BC to 68 AD.

In addition to the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are other manuscripts of the Old Testament that date before Christ. Yet it is the remarkably extensive discovery in the Dead Sea Scrolls that confirms that the modern day Old Testament has been unchanged since at least before the time of Christ.

The Dead Sea discovery verifies that today we are in the possession of the Old Testament that Jesus read and used. And Jesus himself testified as to the correct books of the Old Testament and to their accuracy. (Here are just a few of many examples: Matthew 5:17-18, 12:40, 13:14-15, 19:3-9, 23:35, Luke 16:31, 24:44, John 5:46-47, 10:35.) Jesus' testimony is an important substantiation that the Old Testament was consistently preserved up to his time. Absent any contrary evidence, the belief that the Old Testament has been reliably preserved is warranted.

The Dead Sea Scrolls also contain what many scholars believe are fragments of New Testament books, including Mark, Acts, Romans, 1 Timothy, 2 Peter, and James. The fragments are small enough that some skeptics (who perhaps hope not to find the Bible reliable) are unwilling to accept them. But the importance of the discovery is that it adds to already existing evidence that the New Testament was written in the first century. The modern Bible agrees with the earliest manuscripts, so we have an unbroken chain from very early in the Christian era.

While we do not have the original New Testament manuscripts ("autographs"), we do have over 25,000 ancient copies of New Testament manuscripts, or pieces thereof. Careful analysis by scholars can compare the various manuscripts and reproduce the originals with great precision. Only about 40 lines of text in the New Testament are in doubt, and these do not effect any Christian doctrine.

Since there are numerous extant New Testament manuscripts from hundreds of years before Muhammad which agree with the modern Bible, the Muslim charge that the modern Bible has been changed is a hollow claim. Thus, the Bible (Old and New Testaments) being read during Muhammad's time and hundreds of years prior is the same Bible we have today.

There is no longer any real doubt that the New Testament is what it claims to be— a reliable record of Jesus and his apostles written by eye witnesses and interviewers of eyewitnesses of Jesus. Many scholars are convinced that the entire New Testament was written between 40 and 70 AD. The possible exception to this are some of the writings of John, who lived to be a very old man, and may have been written as late as the 90's AD. (We recommend the final section of the Geisler/Saleeb book listed below as good summary.)

In addition to the manuscript evidence itself, we have quotations from the New Testament from the early church fathers (from 97 AD to 325 AD). These quotations allow reconstructing all but eleven verses of the modern New Testament— even without any manuscripts themselves! This is significant to Muslims, since these attestations are from hundreds of years before Muhammad.

Yusuf Ali also said that the New Testament we have today is not the same as in Muhammad's time. Wrong again. The accumulation of evidence proves that the case is really closed in this matter. The New Testament has been reliably preserved through the ages.

A final charge by Muslims is that the Apostle Paul changed the message of Jesus. There is absolutely no evidence for this claim. Besides, there are simply too many well-attested ancient manuscripts for this to be even remotely possible. Further, Paul's message was both checked and approved by the original apostles (Galatians 1-2, 2 Peter 3:15-16)!

Also significant for the Muslim is that the Quran itself has a high view of Scripture. While this will be a bit tedious for our non-Muslim readers, we think it is important to document that the Quran does indeed support the Bible in these key areas (information from the Campbell book on the list below):

    · These passages show that the Torah was true at the time of Jesus: Suras 3:48-50, 5:49, 5:113, 19:12, 61:6, 66:12.

    · These passages show that the Torah and the Gospel were true and unchanged at the time of Muhammad: Suras 2:91, 3:3, 4:162-163, 5:51, 6:154-157, 9:111, 10:37, 12:111, 34:31, 35:31, 40:69-70, 46:12, 46:29-30.

    · There are 24 passages in the Quran where Muhammad actually quotes or appeals to the Torah and/or the Gospel.

    · 55 other verses say that the Torah or the Gospel are good. Some of these include Suras 3:187, 4:47, and 5:46-48.

    · No one has ever brought forth a copy of the Torah or Gospel that differs from the one we have now.

    · Sura 10:94 specifically says, "If thou wert in doubt As to what We have revealed Unto thee, then ask those Who have been reading The Book [the Bible] from before thee: The Truth hath indeed come To them from thy Lord: So be in no wise Of those in doubt."

    · Sura 5:48 says that God guarded the Bible in safety, so either the Quran is wrong or Muslims who say that the Bible is corrupted are wrong!

So, there is no basis in reason for the Muslim, especially, to deny the accuracy of the Bible!

The logic is quite simple and unavoidable. The Quran says that the Bible was true at the time of Muhammad. The manuscript evidence unequivocally verifies that the Bible we have today is the same as the one in Muhammad's time (and before). So Muslims who say the Bible is corrupted are either mistaken themselves, or else the Quran is wrong. Since Muslims cannot accept that the Quran is wrong, the Bible must be accepted as reliable and true. And thus it is logically consistent for the Muslim to accept the Bible and therefore its doctrine of the deity of Christ.

In summary, neither the Bible nor the Quran that we have today is identical to the originals. But both have been substantially preserved. There is no evidence that any important doctrine of either Christianity or Islam has been altered from the originals.

Let us summarize the evidence why the Bible can be trusted. There are four important approaches to considering the evidence for the reliability of the Bible:

    Manuscript Evidence. Regarding the New Testament, the evidence supports the view that all of the New Testament was written by eyewitnesses or other contemporaries of Jesus, and that it has been reliably preserved. There are no abrogations or destruction of manuscripts as there are in Islam.

    Archeological Evidence. Over 25,000 sites have been discovered that pertain to the Bible. As Nelson Glueck, renowned Jewish archeologist said, "It may be stated categorically that no archeological discovery has ever controverted a biblical reference." This is really an amazing testimony for the Bible.

    Prophetic Evidence. Some 2000 biblical prophecies have already been fulfilled, including over 300 about Jesus—with no prophetic failures. The probability of just 16 predictions being fulfilled without an error is 1 in 10 to the 45th power. For 2000 predictions to be correct without a failure is an inconceivable probability number. There is nothing at all like this in any other holy book.

    Statistical Evidence. The Bible contains 66 books, written by approximately 40 different writers, over 1600 years, on 3 different continents, in 3 different languages, on thousands of different subjects—with no errors or contradictions. (Norman Geisler in his book written with Abdul Saleeb discusses this, and emphasizes that from his 40 years of studying the Bible he has concluded that every so-called error or contradiction is a red herring.) Yet there is one beautiful central theme in the Bible: God's redemption of mankind from sin won for the whole world by the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. So, regarding the Bible, there are multiple reliable witnesses, many of whom did not know each other, whose stories can be corroborated. This compares to the Quran, which was revealed by one very violent man who, according to Islamic sources was bewitched (Bukhari 4:400, 4:490, 8:400), and in which are found numerous confirmed errors and contradictions.

These facts, and much more supports the Christian view that the Bible is indeed from God. For more on this topic, see our website http://www.faithfacts.org/quest_main.html and the final section of the Geisler/Saleeb book list at the bottom of this article.

The only apparent reason why Muslims claim that the Bible has changed is that there is so much contradiction versus the Quran. There is no evidential basis for the claim that the Bible is anything other than reliable. If the Bible is true—Allah is not God, Muhammad was not his prophet, and the Quran is not the Word of God.

Jesus and Muhammad
There is a significant difference between the founders of the two religions. Muhammad was a sinner. In Suras 40:55 and 48:1-2, Allah tells Muhammad to ask for forgiveness for his sins (translated frailties in some translations.) Certain sins of his are mentioned in Bukhari 1:234 and 8:794-796, which include cutting off people's limbs, burning out their eyes, and making them die of thirst. Other mention of his sins are found in Bukhari 1:19, 711, 781, 3:582, 4:319, 7:1, 8:319.

Jesus, on the other hand was without sin (Acts 10:38, 1 Peter 1:19, 2:21-24, 1 John 2:1, 3:5). Even his enemies, those who betrayed and crucified him, acknowledged his perfect life (Matthew 27:3-4, Luke 23:14-15). This is an important theme in the Bible, but as we have previously mentioned, it is also confirmed in Islamic teaching (Bukhari 4:506).

Modern Islam is generally considered to be free of racism. However Muhammad himself owned slaves, including a black slave named Anjasha (Bukhari 3:711, 6:435, 8:182, 8:221, 9:368, etc.). For more information, see http://www.answering-islam.org and search for "slaves." Of note, the only place where slavery is practiced today is in Islamic countries.

Slavery was common practice in the ancient world. Indeed, the Bible seems to acknowledge it as common practice. But Christianity teaches that all people are created equal (Genesis 1:27, Galatians 3:28). And the Bible specifically condemns the slave trade (1 Timothy 1:9-11).

Consider Jesus, the sinless prophet. In contrast to Muhammad, Jesus

    · was never forgiven because he had no sin,

    · killed no travelers in cold blood,

    · never told us to kill anybody,

    · was not prejudiced against classes of people,

    · did not own slaves,

    · did not succumb to the devil and was not bewitched (Matthew 4, Luke 4)

    · had high moral standards (never said forcible sex was OK),

    · promised to pay the penalty for your sins,

    · suffered and died for you and me,

    · has no tomb for he rose from the dead, and

    · is the Prince of Peace.

Muhammad by his own admission was merely a mortal man (Sura 18:110), and never performed a single miracle (Suras 3:183-184, 17:90-95, Bukhari 6:504, 9:379). The Quran itself acknowledges that Muhammad's opponents challenged him with, "Why is not an angel sent down to him?" to settle the matter of his prophethood (Sura 6:8-9). But Muhammad could not deliver. Yet Jesus performed numerous miracles before many witnesses (Mark 7:37, John 10:38, et. al.) Jesus' miracles are even confirmed in the Quran (Sura 5:110-113).

Muhammad said of himself that he could do nothing for you (Sura 11:31), but only Jesus can forgive your sins (1 John 2:1-2). (For more on miracle claims, see Geisler/Saleeb, indexed on page 335).

In addition to being powerful, Muhammad was wealthy (Bukhari 3:495), which brings into question his true motive. But Jesus was a lowly itinerant rabbi whose motive is not in question. Jesus' status is important because he could relate to the common person of any time:

    He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows and familiar with suffering...Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows...He was pierced for our transgression, He was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed...We all like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. (Isaiah 53).

    We do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet was without sin. (Hebrews 4:15).

Jesus' influence came not from wealth or political power, but from his words and actions that challenged people's very concept of truth (Mark 1:27, John 18:38). He said,

    I am the way, the truth, and the life. (John 14:6)

Let's consider further the subject of prophecies. One thing that has convinced many of the true identity of Jesus is the evidence from fulfilled prophecies. Jesus fulfilled over 200 prophecies and implications, many made hundreds of years before his birth. While some of the prophecies are subtle, many are precise— including his place of birth, and the details of his life and death. [See Section on ProphecyJesus even predicted his own death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21, Acts 10:40, etc.)!

The interested reader may want to take the time to look up these prophecies and the details of their fulfillment. It is hard to get the color and richness of Christianity without understanding this aspect of it.

Abdul Saleeb, who converted to Christianity from Islam, says the two primary things that convinced him that Jesus is more than just a prophet were first, the character of Jesus, and second, Jesus' amazing fulfillment of prophecy. This element of prophecy, which is such an important part of Christianity, has no parallel in any other religion. Jesus is the focus and fulcrum of all of history.

Why would you be a follower of Muhammad—or anyone else—when you could be a follower of Jesus, the Savior of the World

It is clear that fundamental Christianity and fundamental Islam are incompatible worldviews. If either one is right, the other must be wrong. The evidence demands a verdict.

    Who is the liar? It is the man who denies that Jesus is the Christ. Such a man is the anti-christ—he denies the Father and the Son. No one who denies the Son has the Father; whoever acknowledges the Son has the Father also...I am writing these things to you about those who are trying to lead you astray. (1 John 2:22-23, 26)

Speaking especially to our Muslim readers, we invite you to consider the Christian faith. The Christian faith offers assurance of salvation. It also offers love and intimacy with God. Consider especially the person of Jesus—his beauty and gentleness. May your hopes and dreams be fulfilled. [See The Salvation Message]

FootNote: The Term “Sons of God”
The Biblical term "Sons of Elohim" (son of the Creator Himself), is only used of someone who is born of a specific divine act of creation.

    Adam: In Luke's genealogy of Jesus, only Adam is called a son of God (Luke 3:38) However note very carefully that except for Adam who was created directly by God, no human in the Old Testament was ever called a Son of God.

    Believers In The New Testament are called Sons of God (John 1:12) because they, being born again of the Spirit of God, are considered to be a new creation. Christ gives them that receive Him the power to become the sons of God.. who at their resurrection will be equal to the angels. [Luke 20:36]

      He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, [John 1:11, 12]

      Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come. [2 Corinthians 5:17]

    The Angels, who were directly created by the Father and do not reproduce as men do, were referred to as B’nai HaElohim or sons of God.

       Now it came to pass on the day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah, that Satan also came among them. [Job 1:6]

    Jesus When the New Testament refers to Jesus as the Son of God, it is speaking of him taking on human form for which he had to be born of a woman. Although He was with the Father from the beginning, He was also God's Son in that He was conceived in Mary by the Holy Spirit. He was born a human as a direct creation of God. Luke 1:35 tells us that the angel told Mary …

      'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.’”.  [PLACE IN TEXT]


Why Islam and the Christian Faith Clash
By Randy Blackaby

As the thunder of a Third World War rumbles from Israel to Iraq and from Afghanistan to New York and Bali, the extremely naïve of our country shake their heads and imagine its all rooted in minor religious differences. They also imagine that some new level of tolerance and acceptance can resolve it. They imply a new ecumenism is needed.

And while weak and sickly American denominationalism and its anemic ecumenical faithlessness lend their political correctness to these ideas, any real understanding of what the Bible says about being a Christian or what the Qur’an says about being a Muslim demonstrates these two faiths always will clash.

Recently, a PBS program advanced the idea that Christianity, Judaism and Islam represent “one God and three faiths.” The false premise and the idea promoted is that these three religions have a lot in common and only relatively minor differences. But again, such ideas belie a deep ignorance of each religion.

A Christian is, by any reasonable definition, a disciple or follower of Jesus Christ. The Bible teaches that Jesus was born of a virgin, his birth instigated by the Holy Spirit. Thus, he was both God and man at once, as the name Immanuel suggests (Matthew 1:23). Further, the Bible teaches that Jesus lived a sinless life (Hebrews 4:15) and died a torturous death on the cross for mankind’s sins (Romans 5:6-8). [See Salvation]Scripture records that Jesus accepted worship from men while on earth (John 21:28) and today serves as the sole mediator between God and men (1 Timothy 2:5). [See The Deity of Jesus Christ. Was He Lord, Liar Or Lunatic?]

While Jesus and the first disciples were Jews, and while Jewish scriptures foretold the Christ’s coming, there is little but history that connects Judaism and Christianity today. Jews may accept that Jesus lived, but they deny his deity, his sacrificial death for sin and his present mediation from heaven.

However, many Jews and professed Christians don’t take their beliefs very seriously, reduce religion and worship to a social event and manage to politically find common ground and a relative peace.

Islam’s view
Islam is a different story, in several respects. First, like the Jews, Muslims deny that Jesus is the Son of God. They deny Jesus died on a cross for our sins and that he was resurrected. They reject the Bible’s statement that Jesus is God’s final revelator of His will (Hebrews 1:1-3). Jesus is viewed as merely a good teacher, whose teachings were corrupted by the apostles who followed him.

More importantly, Muslims fundamentally reject the entire foundation of both Christian and Jewish faith. Since they claim both Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and Christian scriptures (New Testament) are corrupted, neither is accepted.

Instead, they follow the teachings and example of Mohammed, reputedly recorded in a holy book called the Qur’an. Other writings and traditions, such as the Hadith, help guide them as well.

Understand Mohammed and understand the conflict
The faith of Islam centers on Mohammed. This man was born in Mecca, in present-day Saudi Arabia, about 570 AD. Muslims say that in about 610 AD Mohammed was visited by the angel Gabriel and told that he was to be God’s apostle. They say Gabriel visited the founder of Islam many more times with messages that were verbally handed down for decades and then recorded in what became the Qur’an.

When Mohammed began teaching in Mecca he was rejected and ridiculed. So, in 622 he is said to have traveled to Medina in Saudi Arabia, where his teachings found acceptance. Thus, the Islamic calendar is dated from 622.

In Medina, the movement headed by Mohammed began to change from simple teaching to a political and social crusade. Mohammed died just 10 years after his first success, in 632. But his followers say that while alive he performed miracles, such as multiplying food, causing stones to speak and splitting the moon. He is purported to have made a miraculous “Night Journey to Jerusalem” and the “seven spheres of heaven.” For this trip he rode a winged, human-headed beast, they say.

Mohammed is viewed as the successor to Jesus. And while they contend Jesus’ teaching has been corrupted, they are adamant that Islam’s scriptures remain undefiled through the centuries. Mohammed is to Islam what Jesus is to Christian faith. In fact, one Islamic writer has described the founder of Islam as “the most favored of mankind, the most honored of all apostles, the prophet of mercy, the head or Imam of the faithful, the bearer of the banner of praise, the intercessor, the holder of high position, the possessor of the River of Paradise, under whose banner the sons of Adam will be on the day of judgment. He is the best of prophets and his nation is the best of nations…and his creed is the noblest of all creeds.”

Compare Jesus and Mohammed
When you set Jesus and Mohammed side by side, the contrast is startling—and illuminating. Jesus was meek and gentle. He spread his message of repentance, faith in God and impending salvation by teaching. He ultimately gave up his life for his followers. He declared that his kingdom is not of this world (John 18:36).

Mohammed, on the other hand, was a warrior. He conquered by the sword, starting with raids on merchant caravans. Those who opposed his teaching were physically conquered and often given the option of conversion or death. Mohammed’s kingdom is definitely “of this world” as the quote above illustrates, because “his nation is the best of nations” in Islamic thought.

Anywhere Islam becomes the predominant religious conviction, the government becomes an arm of Islam and is used to enforce religious law and punish any teaching or practice contrary to Muslim tenets. It is illegal for Christians to evangelize or even openly read a Bible in Islamic countries.

If Mohammed’s example were not sufficient, the Qur’an advocates “holy war” or “jihad.” The so-called “militant Muslims” of al Qaeda and Hamas are really just Muslims who take Mohammed and their Qur’an seriously and at face value. The Qur’an teaches, “Slay the idolaters wherever you find them…lie in ambush everywhere for them. If they repent and take to prayer and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way…” (Sura 9:5).

The Encarta Encyclopedia says this of the history of Islam, “The remarkable speed of (Islam’s) religious expansion can be attributed to the fact that it was accomplished primarily through military conquest. Mohammed drew Arabs…to Islam by his forceful personality, the promise of salvation for those who died fighting for Islam, and the lure of fortune for those who succeeded in conquest. The caravan raids of the early years of Islam soon became full-scale wars, and empires and nations bowed to the power of this new religious, military, political, economic and social phenomenon.” See Section Does Islam Promote Peace on THIS Page

An Islamic website largely confirms this. “Islam was spread by proof and evidence, in the case of those who listened to the message and responded to it. And it was spread through strength and the sword in the case of those who stubbornly resisted, until they had no choice and had to submit to the new reality” (http://www.islam-qa.com/ Question #5441).

This is quite a contrast to Christian faith rooted in the teaching of the New Testament. The Apostle Paul averred, “The weapons of our warfare are not carnal but mighty in God for pulling down strongholds, casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God” (2 Corinthians 10:4-5). The armaments of the Christian soldier are described in Ephesians 6:10-17. The only armor described as offensive is the “sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.”

The religious foundations of the conflict
Some of the present conflict is rooted in economic and political issues. Like Hitler did in Germany in the late 1930s, Muslim leaders have made “the west” the scapegoats just as the Nazis did the Jews. But the conflict has a fundamental religious element also, as we’ve seen.

Despite aberrations like the Catholic inquisition, teaching and preaching the gospel spread Christian faith. Belief always and necessarily is voluntary, the response of a heart touched by the message of God’s love, illustrated in the death of Jesus on the cross.

But Islam began its development with violence and once nearly took over the world by war. Today, some of its advocates again seek to bring Islamic rule to the world through terrorism and violence.

The two religions have two very different founders and two very different holy books. Their views of God, salvation and the future are very different—radically different.

If there are peace-loving Muslims in the world, they are peaceful in spite of Mohammed and the Qur’an—not because of them. Such Muslims are the “liberals” of their faith because they do not seek to imitate their founder or follow strictly the teachings of his book.


Index To Articles on Islam