Section 11... Cults/Catholicism


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Mary... Queen of Heaven? Part I

 Carol Brooks
(Edited by Vicki Narlee)

Also See


The Title "Queen of Heaven" Applied to Several Ancient Goddesses

Various Titles Given Mary Did Not Come From Scripture

Sons of God, or Sons of Mary?
Does Mary's Foot Crush Satan's Head?

"Queen Mother" Intercessor To The King?
Gebyrh... "Queen Mother", "Mistress" Or Wife?
Did The Queen Mother Wear A Crown?
No Particular Emphasis On The Mother Of The King
Did Solomon Pull up A 'Throne' For His Mother?

Mary.... Missing in Various Visions Of The Throne of God
Psalm 45:9... Mary Arrayed In Gold?
Are We Sure We Want To Use The Mothers of Kings In The Old Testament as Examples of Mary's Role?
Proverbs 31
Mediator to the Mediator?

Did Gabriel and Elizabeth's Words Signify Mary Had An Exalted Position?
Why Did Elizabeth Call Mary Blessed?
Who, According To Jesus, Is "Blessed" And Part of His Family?

Part II... The Wedding at Cana, The Woman of Revelation 12, Grandiloquent Claptrap Replaces Very Impressive Scriptural Truths,The Magnificat.

The Rosary is made up of twenty "mysteries" (significant events or moments in the life of Jesus and Mary) [00]. The Vatican web site says The Fifth Glorious Mystery is "The crowning of Our Lady Queen of Heaven". [01] The Queenship of Mary was established in an encyclical of Pope Pius XII (The Ad Caeli Reginam), on the 11th of October, 1954, which said ....

    Mary was chosen as Mother of Christ in order that she might become a partner in the redemption of the human race; As Christ, the new Adam must be called a King not merely because He is Son of God, but also because He is our Redeemer, so, analogously, the Most Blessed Virgin is queen not only because she is Mother of God, but also because, as the new Eve, she was associated with the new Adam. [02]

In fact, in an 1849 papal letter (an encyclical) addressed to the bishops of the Church, Pope Pius IX wrote [Emphasis Added]

    The foundation of all Our confidence, as you know well, Venerable Brethren, is found in the Blessed Virgin Mary. For, God has committed to Mary the treasury of all good things, in order that everyone may know that through her are obtained every hope, every grace, and all salvation. For this is His will, that we obtain everything through Mary. [St. Bernard, In Nativit. S. Mariae de Aquaeductu] [03]

However, long before the Church formally enthroned Mary as 'Queen of Heaven', her queenship was a popular belief enshrined for posterity in prayer, poetry, art and architecture. In fact, the Second Council of Nica declared a person to be anathema if they did not...

    "... confess the holy ever-virgin Mary, truly and properly the Mother of God, to be higher than every creature whether visible or invisible, and does not with sincere faith seek her intercessions as of one having confidence in her access to our God, since she bare him, etc." [04]

The Title Queen of Heaven Applied to Several Ancient Goddesses
The term "Queen of Heaven" was not unknown either to ancient cultures, nor to the Scriptures. A number of goddesses in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East, bore the same title. The list is a lengthy one but, perhaps, two of the best known are Isis and Inanna, the latter known by many names.

In his book The Golden Ass, Lucius Apuleius, a second century author wrote about the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, who experiments with magic and is accidentally turned into a donkey. In Book 11, Chapter 47, his character prayed to the "Queen of Heaven" who, in her response, explicitly identified herself as both Isis and the Queen of Heaven. [Emphasis Added]

    "Behold Lucius I am come, thy weeping and prayers has moved me to succor thee. I am she that is the natural mother of all things, mistress and governess of all the elements, the initial progeny of worlds, chief of powers divine, Queen of heaven, the principal of the Gods celestial, the light of the goddesses: at my will the planets of the air, the wholesome winds of the Seas, and the silences of hell be disposed; my name, my divinity is adored throughout all the world in divers manners, in variable customs and in many names, for the Phrygians call me Pessinuntica, the mother of the Gods: the Athenians call me Cecropian Artemis: the Cyprians, Paphian Aphrodite: the Candians, Dictyanna: the Sicilians , Stygian Proserpine: and the Eleusians call me Mother of the Corn. Some call me Juno, others Bellona of the Battles, and still others Hecate. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient, and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine, and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me, do call me Queen Isis. Behold I am come".... 

Folklorist Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer, a preeminent expert on the ancient country of Sumer, collaborated on a book entitled "Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth". The book is an annotated translation of the major Sumerian cuneiform texts devoted to the goddess Inanna, said to be among the oldest religious texts in the world. The book says

    "The goddess who outweighed, overshadowed, and outlasted them all was a deity known to the Sumerians by the name of Inanna, 'Queen of Heaven,' and to the Semites who lived in Sumer by the name of Ishtar.

    In Sumerian, Inanna's name means "Queen of Heaven," ...in Sumerian mythology, she was known as Queen of Heaven and Earth...." [05].

Although there is quite a bit of conflicting information out there, it is very likely that the goddess known to the Sumerians as Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth, was simply given different name by people from different regions. She was called Ishtar by the later Babylonians, Akkadians and Assyrians, Astarte by the Phoenicians, while the Israelites knew her as Ashtoreth

According to Joseph Campbell, American author and teacher, best known for his work in the field of comparative mythology....

    "the dead and resurrected god Tammuz (Sumerian Dumuzi), prototype of the Classical Adonis, who was the consort as well as son by virgin birth, of the goddess-mother of many names: Inanna, Ninhursag, Ishtar, Astarte, Artemis, Demeter, Aphrodite, Venus" [06].

What The Bible Says About The 'Queen of Heaven'
In the final analysis, it does not matter if there was a single female deity called by various names, or whether there were several goddesses. What matters are many instances of the Israelites repeatedly turning away from Yahweh to worship other gods, among whom were the male Chemosh, Baal, Milcom, Tammuz and the Sun God. Also the goddesses Ashtoreth and Asherah. [See Sample Verses]

The title Queen of Heaven is twice mentioned in the book of Jeremiah and, although I do not think we can positively identify which of the goddesses is being referred to, it is likely that Jeremiah was speaking of Ashtoreth, a later name for Inanna, the ancient Sumerian goddess whose title was 'Queen of Heaven and Earth'. In any case, entire families were involved in the idolatry... the children gathered wood, the fathers kindled the fires, and the women kneaded dough to make cakes for the queen of heaven.

It is very obvious that the worship of this "queen of heaven" provoked God to great anger.

    [16] As for you, do not pray for this people, and do not lift up cry or prayer for them, and do not intercede with Me; for I do not hear you. [17] Do you not see what they are doing in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem?  [18] The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead dough to make cakes for the queen of heaven; and they pour out drink offerings to other gods in order to spite Me". [19] "Do they spite Me?" declares the LORD. "Is it not themselves they spite, to their own shame?" [20] Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, "Behold, My anger and My wrath will be poured out on this place, on man and on beast and on the trees of the field and on the fruit of the ground; and it will burn and not be quenched." [Jeremiah 7:16-20 NASB]

When the Israelites went so far as to attribute their peace and prosperity to this goddess and refused to stop burning sacrifices or pour out drink offerings to her....

    [16] "As for the message that you have spoken to us in the name of the LORD, we are not going to listen to you!  [17] But rather we will certainly carry out every word that has proceeded from our mouths, by burning sacrifices to the queen of heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, just as we ourselves, our forefathers, our kings and our princes did in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem; for then we had plenty of food and were well off and saw no misfortune. [18] But since we stopped burning sacrifices to the queen of heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have lacked everything and have met our end by the sword and by famine." [19] "And," said the women, "when we were burning sacrifices to the queen of heaven and were pouring out drink offerings to her, was it without our husbands that we made for her sacrificial cakes in her image and poured out drink offerings to her?" [Jeremiah 44:16-19 NASB]

...The Lord God responded to this treachery by telling the people to go ahead and do as they wished, but to pay close attention to His words...

    "... Behold, I have sworn by My great name, says the LORD, never shall My name be invoked again by the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, 'As the Lord GOD lives.' Behold, I am watching over them for harm and not for good, and all the men of Judah who are in the land of Egypt will meet their end by the sword and by famine until they are completely gone. Those who escape the sword will return out of the land of Egypt to the land of Judah few in number. Then all the remnant of Judah who have gone to the land of Egypt to reside there will know whose word will stand, Mine or theirs".[ Jeremiah 44:26b-28 NASB] 

Various Titles Given Mary Did Not Come From Scripture
The fact that the title given ancient goddesses has also been bestowed on Mary should make any Christian extremely uncomfortable. However, many Catholics will tell you that this is not a carry over from the worship of an ancient goddess, which begs the question... where did the title come from?

As previously mentioned, the queenship of Mary was formally established by Pope Pius XII in Ad Caeli Reginam, a 1954 papal encyclical, or letter, written in 52 points. In reading through the encyclical, one fact that jumps out is that it makes very few references to the Scriptures, but quotes from the writings of early church authors innumerable times. In other words, tradition, rather than God's word, took center stage.

Some of the authors quoted were Ephrem, Gregory Nazianzen, Prudentius, Origen, Jerome, Chrysologus, Epiphanius (bishop of Constantinople), Andrew of Crete, Germanus, John Damascene, Ildephonsus of Toledo etc., many of whom waxed very eloquent in their elevation of Mary. The encyclical says...

    St. Andrew of Crete frequently attributes the dignity of a Queen to the Virgin Mary. And quotes him as writing "Today He transports from her earthly dwelling, as Queen of the human race, His ever-Virgin Mother, from whose womb He, the living God, took on human form". It also quotes Andrew of Crete who called Mary "the Queen of the entire human race faithful to the exact meaning of her name, who is exalted above all things save only God himself."

    Germanus spoke to Mary in these words: "Be enthroned, Lady, for it is fitting that you should sit in an exalted place since you are a Queen and glorious above all kings."

    John Damascene called her  "Queen, ruler, and lady," and also "the Queen of every creature."

    An unnamed ancient writer of the Eastern Church called her "favored Queen," "the perpetual Queen beside the King, her son," whose "snow-white brow is crowned with a golden diadem." [07]

See More About Gregory of Nazianzus HERE

However, I would like to address points 12- 14 which quote Origen, Jerome, and Chrysologus, who give us the supposed sources of these exalted titles.  [All Emphasis Added]

    12. And this royal dignity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is quite clearly indicated through direct assertion by those who call her "Lady," "Ruler" and "Queen."

    13. In one of the homilies attributed to Origen, Elizabeth calls Mary "the Mother of my Lord." and even addresses her as "Thou, my Lady." (a)

    14. The same thing is found in the writings of St. Jerome where he makes the following statement amidst various interpretations of Mary's name: "We should realize that Mary means Lady in the Syrian Language." (b) After him St. Chrysologus says the same thing more explicitly in these words: "The Hebrew word 'Mary' means 'Domina.' The Angel therefore addresses her as 'Lady' to preclude all servile fear in the Lord's Mother, who was born and was called 'Lady' by the authority and command of her own Son." (c)

    (a) Hom. in S. Lucam, hom. VII; ed. Rauer, Origenes' Werke, T. IX, p. 48 (ex catena Marcarii Chrysocephali). Cf. PG XIII, 1902 D.

    (b)  S. Hieronymus, Liber de nominibus hebraeis: PL XXIII, 886.

    (c) S. Petrus Chrysologus, Sermo 142, De Annuntiatione B.M.V.: PL LII, 579 C; cf. etiam 582 B; 584 A: "Regina totius exstitit castitatis." [08]

Origen: According to Origen, Elizabeth addresses Mary as "Thou, my Lady". I am not sure what New Testament Origen was reading, since the phrase "my lady" is conspicuous by its absence. What the Biblical text actually says is Mary....

    "... entered the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the baby leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. And she cried out with a loud voice and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! "And how has it happened to me, that the mother of my Lord would come to me? "For behold, when the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy. "And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord." [Luke 1:40-45 NASB]

But this is hardly surprising since Origen, known for introducing Greek ideas into Christianity, often flatly contradicted the Scriptures. He taught the pre-existence of souls, the final reconciliation of all creatures (possibly even Satan), and the subordination of the Son to the Father. In fact, the Fifth Ecumenical Council (The Second Council of Constantinople) passed 15 anathemas against Origen's teachings, which can be read on this page of the web site ...http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf214.xii.ix.html. Yet, later popes didn't seem to have an issue with quoting him when it suited them.

Jerome, who was a fourth-fifth century Latin priest, theologian, historian, and Doctor of the Church, states that "Mary" means "lady" in the Syrian Language. However, the New Testament was written, not in Syriac, but in Greek therefore, whatever "Mary" means in Syriac has no bearing on the matter. In Greek, the name Mary is Maria or Mariam, which came from the Hebrew Miryam. In turn Miryam is derived from merur which means bitterness or rebellion.

Peter Chrysologus, Bishop of Ravenna from about 433, adds that "The Hebrew word 'Mary' means 'Domina.' The Angel therefore addresses her as 'Lady' to preclude all servile fear in the Lord's Mother, who was born and was called 'Lady' by the authority and command of her own Son".

Perhaps we should stop imbuing etymology with preconceived ideas.

    1) 'Mary' and 'Domina' are two vastly different words. I repeat... The name Mary is the Greek Maria or Mariam, which came from the Hebrew Mirym which in turn is derived from merur (bitterness or rebellion). On the other hand, "Domina", is the female form of the Latin word Dominus... master or owner, from which we get the English word "dominate". Dominus was the Latin title of feudal lords etc, and a common prefix for parsons before the Reformation. The shortened form "dom" is sometimes used as a prefix of honor for ecclesiastics of the Catholic Church. 

Also, the word "lady" is not even hinted at in the New Testament.

    2) The angel did not address Mary as "Lady". Gabriel's exact words were "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you." [Luke 1:28 NASB]. The word translated "favored"  is the Greek charitoo, which means to grace or give special honour. It is used one other time in the New Testament where God is said to bestow grace on believers.

    to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed (charitoo) on us in the Beloved.  [Ephesians 1:6 NASB]

    3) I would appreciate someone pointing me to where exactly in the Scriptures Christ commanded Mary be called 'Lady'.

Miryam, an ancient Hebrew name, was quite common in the Old Testament. The Greek versions, Maria or Mariam (English Mary ), were equally common names among Palestinian Jews. Richard J. Bauckham, widely published scholar in theology, historical theology and New Testament studies, says almost 30 percent of women "bore one of the two most popular names, Mary and Salome",  [09] which means that close to one in five women were called Mary, a fact that hardly leans towards placing any particular importance on the name. In fact, the name was so common, that several different women called Mary are not only mentioned in the New Testament but, although their identities are not completely agreed on, at least three were present at the crucifixion.

In short, at least three of the men quoted in the papal encyclical, Ad Caeli Reginam, had their facts completely skewed. Yet, the average Catholic, reading this letter from the pope, would believe every word since they would assume that the pope and the men he quoted, knew what they were talking about.

Sons of God, or Sons of Mary
There are a quite a few other statements made in the Ad Caeli Reginam that find no foundation in the word of God. For example, point 49 reads [Emphasis Added]

    All, according to their state, should strive to bring alive the wondrous virtues of our heavenly Queen and most loving Mother through constant effort of mind and manner. Thus will it come about that all Christians, in honoring and imitating their sublime Queen and Mother, will realize they are truly brothers, and with all envy and avarice thrust aside, will promote love among classes, respect the rights of the weak, cherish peace. No one should think himself a son of Mary, worthy of being received under her powerful protection, unless, like her, he is just, gentle and pure, and shows a sincere desire for true brotherhood, not harming or injuring but rather helping and comforting others. [10]

The New Testament refers to the 'sons of God' on numerous occasions, but are no references to anyone being called a 'son of Mary'.

    "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God." [Matthew 5:9 NASB]

    "But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men." [Luke 6:35 NASB]

    For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. [Romans 8:14 NASB]

    For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, "Abba! Father!" [Romans 8:15 NASB]

    "and it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, 'you are not my people,' there they shall be called sons of the living God." [Romans 9:26 NASB]

    "And I will be a father to you, And you shall be sons and daughters to Me," Says the Lord Almighty.  [2 Corinthians 6:18 NASB]

    For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. [Galatians 3:26 NASB]

    so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.  [Galatians 4:5 NASB]

    Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!"  [Galatians 4:6 NASB]

    He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will,  [Ephesians 1:5 NASB]

    For it is because of these things that the wrath of God will come upon the sons of disobedience, [Colossians 3:6 NASB]

    For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings.  [Hebrews 2:10 NASB]

Does Mary's Foot Crush Satan's Head?
Additionally, in a papal letter (an encyclical) addressed to the bishops of the Church, Pope Pius IX asked them for their opinion on the definition of a dogma on the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. This led directly to the 1854 Apostolic Constitution Ineffabilis Deus, which officially defined the dogma. However what I find amazing is that in this letter, Pope Pius, quoting St. Bernard (I have no idea who he is), and pope Gregory says [Emphasis Added]

    "Great indeed is Our trust in Mary. The resplendent glory of her merits, far exceeding all the choirs of angels, elevates her to the very steps of the throne of God. (1) Her foot has crushed the head of Satan. Set up between Christ and His Church, (2)"  [11]

      1. St. Gregory, Pope, de Exposit. in libros Regum

      2. St. Bernard, Serm. in cap. XII Apocalyps.

The verse being referred to is [Genesis 3:16], which reads

     "And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel." [Genesis 3:15 NASB]

While there is no question that the Hebrew word translated "seed" can be singular or plural, the word translated "He" in the NASB, is the third person pronoun singular, which means that it can only be rendered he, she, or it,... depending on the context. However, the only Person who crushes the head of the serpent is Christ Himself. As Romans 16:20 reads  [Emphasis Added]

    The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you. [NASB]

Catholics will argue that although Jesus is the one who will crush the serpent's head, Mary indirectly does so because she brought the Messiah into the world. She is the chosen instrument through which God crushes the serpent's head. While Christ actually does end Satan's dominion, Mary is the means by which He does so.

Certainly Mary was the instrument used to bring the Messiah into the world, therefore in a round about way, she was the means by which Christ eventually finishes Satan. However, although the Scriptures simply state that God Himself will crush Satan, Catholics will go out of their way, and use every argument in the book, to place as much emphasis on Mary as possible.

"Queen Mother" Intercessor To The King?
Many Catholics endeavor to show that Mary's exalted status is justified based on a supposedly significant role played by the mothers of various kings in the history of Israel. The logic being that when Christ, ultimately and eternally, takes His rightful place on the throne of David, Mary will, have the honor of being 'Queen Mother" in God's kingdom.

In an article entitled Mary Queen of Heaven- the Bible Tells Me So, Fr. Dwight Longenecker says

    Mary as the Queen of Heaven is tied in with the Old Testament concept of the royal household. Because the King had many wives it was impossible for one to be Queen. Therefore the King's mother served in the role. The Queen Mother sat on a throne at the King's right hand and helped rule the kingdom. Access to the King would often be through the Queen Mother and she would ask favors from the King for those who asked her. You can see an example of this in I Kings 2: 17-25 where Solomon is on the throne next to his mother Bathsheba.

He goes on to say that Solomon being David's son, and Jesus inheriting David's throne establishes the role of Mary as Queen Mother. Additionally, since David's kingdom is equivalent to the Kingdom of God/Heaven that Jesus repeatedly spoke about, then Mary is also "Queen Mother of the Kingdom of God, the Kingdom of David, the Kingdom of Heaven, and thus the Queen of Heaven".  [12]

... "Queen Mother", "Mistress" Or Even Wife?
A blog, entitled Viva Catholic, says

    Solomon might be the first who seated his mother, Bathsheba on his right (1 Kings 2:19). His half brother, Adonijah, requested Bathsheba to speak on behalf of him to the King (1 Kings 2:13-18). While he did not get his wish and paid it with his life, the verse indicates the role of gebira as mediator to the King. [13]

In other words, the role of the gebyrh as mother of the king was an important one, since she was also supposedly mediator to the king. This has given rise to the belief that Mary intercedes with her son on behalf of those who petition her.

However there are several problems with this concept, the first being that both gebyrh and a similar word, gebereth, are the feminine forms of gebyr, which is used only twice in the Old Testament and does not, in either instance, indicate a "king". The KJV translates gebyr as "lord", while the NASB and the CLV (Concordant literal version) render it "master".

    May peoples serve you, And nations bow down to you; Be master (Heb. gebyr)of your brothers, And may your mother's sons bow down to you. Cursed be those who curse you, And blessed be those who bless you.  [Genesis 27:29 NASB]

    But Isaac replied to Esau, "Behold, I have made him your master (Heb. gebyr), and all his relatives I have given to him as servants; and with grain and new wine I have sustained him. Now as for you then, what can I do, my son?  [Genesis 27:37 NASB]

Similarly, in the Old Testament, the feminine, gebereth, is used specifically for mistress,

    He said, "Hagar, Sarai's maid, where have you come from and where are you going?" And she said, "I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress [Heb. gebereth] Sarai." [Genesis 16:8 NASB]

    And the people will be like the priest, the servant like his master, the maid like her mistress [Heb. gebereth], the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the debtor. [Isaiah 24:2 NASB]

Additionally, the word gebyrh, also refers to a wife.

    Now Hadad found great favor before Pharaoh, so that he gave him in marriage the sister of his own wife, the sister of Tahpenes the queen (Heb. gebyrh).  [1 Kings 11:19 NASB]

In summary, gebyrh and gebereth simply mean 'mistress', while gebyrh can also be used of a 'wife'.

There is no question that, in 1 Kings 15:9-13, it was definitely the mother of the king who was referred to as the gebyrh.

    So in the twentieth year of Jeroboam the king of Israel, Asa began to reign as king of Judah. He reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem; and his mother's name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom. Asa did what was right in the sight of the LORD, like David his father. He also put away the male cult prostitutes from the land and removed all the idols which his fathers had made. He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother (Heb. gebyrh) , because she had made a horrid image as an Asherah; and Asa cut down her horrid image and burned it at the brook Kidron. [1 Kings 15:9-13 NASB]

The phrase 'queen mother' simply refers to the mother of a king. In the verse above, the NASB translation is quite ridiculous, simply because you cannot 'remove' someone from being your mother, regardless of what she may have done. King or not, Asa couldn't have done so. What the verse actually says that Asa "removed Maacah his mother from being mistress (Heb. gebyrh)", although we are not given the slightest hint as to what exactly 'being mistress' entailed.

And, by the way, there is translation error here. Earlier in the chapter (Verse 1-3), we are told that Maacah was the mother of Abijam .... Asa's father, which means that she was probably Asa's grandmother, not his mother. . Apparently grandmothers were gebyrh, or mistresses, as well.

Did The Queen Mother Wear A Crown?

Jeremiah 13:18, is a verse many Catholics quote in support of the belief that the king's mother, was important enough to wear a crown. Many assume her crown wearing meant that she also wielded authority, perhaps as counselor to the king. While it is entirely possible that this next verse is referring to the mother of the king, the original Hebrew word gebyrh (mistress) does not specify who this "mistress" is. Therefore, the NASB's rendering of gebyrh as "queen mother" is based on the assumption that the king's mother is being referred to.

    Say to the king and the queen mother (Heb. gebyrh), "Take a lowly seat, For your beautiful crown Has come down from your head." [Jeremiah 13:18 NASB]

However, even if Jeremiah was referring to the queen mother, we can hardly use this verse to show that the mother of the king had any particular authority in the affairs of the kingdom. Jeremiah's prophecy probably refers to Jeconiah, which would make it not at all surprising that his mother played a part in his government, since he was only eighteen years old when he ascended to the throne, and only reigned for a grand total of three months. [2 Kings 24:8 NASB]

In any case, this verse is not as clear cut as it may seem. One has to remember that the entire chapter is a prophecy and, as such, involves a great deal of symbolism, which makes it far from certain that a real crown was involved. When it comes to royalty, a crown is usually a symbol of the position.

Note how the verse in rendered in various translations... including two literal versions (Young's Literal translation and The Concordant Literal Version)

    Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down: for your principalities (Heb. marshh) shall come down, even the crown of your glory. [Jeremiah 13:18 KJV]

    Say to the king and to the mistress: Make yourselves low--sit still, For come down have your principalities (Heb. marshh), The crown of your beauty." [Jeremiah 13:18 CLV]

    Say to the king and to the mistress: Make yourselves low--sit still, For come down have your principalities (Heb. marshh), The crown of your beauty.  [Jeremiah 13:18 YLT]

The Hebrew word translated 'principalities' is marshh, defined as place at the head, dominion. [14]

No Particular Emphasis On The Mother Of The King
Others place importance on the fact that, in the second book of Kings, it is stated that Nebuchadnezzar carried the king's mother into captivity. While it stands to reason that the mother of the king would have been an important person in the kingdom, the verse says the kings entire family, including his wives, his mother (Heb. m), the officials and leading men of the land were ALL led away into captivity. There is NO particular emphasis on the mother of the king. In fact Nebuchadnezzar also took captive a bunch of other people.

    Then he led away into exile all Jerusalem and all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land. So he led Jehoiachin away into exile to Babylon; also the king's mother (Heb. m) and the king's wives and his officials and the leading men of the land, he led away into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon. (2 Kings 24:14-15 NASB)

The incident is again referred to in Jeremiah 29:2 and, again gebyrh is rendered "queen mother", although it could mean the queen.

    This was after King Jeconiah and the queen mother (Heb. gebyrh), the court officials, the princes of Judah and Jerusalem, the craftsmen and the smiths had departed from Jerusalem.  [Jeremiah 29:2 NASB]

Finally, while it may have been true that the king's mother played a more important role than his many wives, it was more often than not in the context of her efforts to get her son, rather than a son of one of the other wives, on the throne. I Kings 1 shows how Bathsheba thwarted Adonijah's (David's oldest living son) plans to have himself enthroned.

Making more of these verses than the text actually says is a classic case of reading our preconceived ideas into the Scriptures.

Did Solomon Pull up A 'Throne' For His Mother?
A second argument used in favor of the status of the king's mother is that when Bathsheba went to King Solomon to speak to him on Adonijah's behalf, Solomon rose to meet her, bowed, then had a "throne" set on his right for her. [1 Kings 2:19]. However, although the same word has been used for Solomon's seat, and the one he had set for his mother, it does not necessarily mean that both occurrences meant a "throne".

There is no doubt that the majority of uses of kissh are in reference to the throne of God, the throne of David etc. Additionally, when kissh is used in Exodus 11:5 in reference to the Pharaoh, and in Jonah 3:6 in speaking about the king of Nineveh, there is little doubt that the word refers to a real royal throne.

    and say, 'Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, who sits on David's throne (Heb. kissh), you and your servants and your people who enter these gates.  [Jeremiah 22:2 NASB]

    and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne (Heb. kissh), even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the firstborn of the cattle as well. [Exodus 11:5 NASB]

    When the word reached the king of Nineveh, he arose from his throne (Heb. kissh), laid aside his robe from him, covered himself with sackcloth and sat on the ashes.  [Jonah 3:6 NASB]

However, the Hebrew word used is kissh also refers to a seat or stool. It is also used to describe what Eli the priest was sitting on near the door of the temple and, later, by the side of the road. In both cases it obviously meant some sort of seat.

    Then Hannah rose after eating and drinking in Shiloh. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat (Heb. kissh) by the doorpost of the temple of the LORD.  [1 Samuel 1:9 NASB]

    When he came, behold, Eli was sitting on his seat (Heb. kissh) by the road eagerly watching, because his heart was trembling for the ark of God. So the man came to tell it in the city, and all the city cried out.  [1 Samuel 4:13 NASB]

So did Solomon pull up a throne for his mother? Considering it would have been immeasurably rude for him to have kept his mother standing, doesn't it stand to reason that when she walked in, he had a seat of some sort pulled up, so she could sit down? Also, the fact that the verse mentions that Solomon seated his mother on his right, could just mean that he had a great amount of respect for her. However, we cannot possibly interpret this as meaning that this was the normal procedure of the day. Nor does stand to reason that Christ will seat Mary on His right, which is assumed by many Catholics. In fact, the 16th paragraph in Pope Pius XII's 1954 encyclical (The Ad Caeli Reginam), reads

    The Blessed Virgin, sitting at the right hand of God to pray for us is hailed by another writer of that same era in these words, "the Queen [17a] of mortal man, the most holy Mother of God." [Encomium in Dormitionem Ssmae Deiparae (inter opera S. Modesti): PG LXXXVI, 3306 B.] [15]

    Note: I believe the 'other writer' is Modestus of Jerusalem, seventh century Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.

However, the Biblical evidence does not support Mary sitting at God's right hand

Mary.... Missing in Various Visions Of The Throne of God
John's description of the throne of God is more than telling. He speaks of the "the throne of God", "God who sits on the throne", "the Lamb in the center of the throne", "the throne of God and of the Lamb" etc. However, although John even describes a great multitude standing before the throne, he says absolutely nothing about Mary standing at the king's right hand. 

    "After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands; and they cry out with a loud voice, saying, 'Salvation to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.'" [Revelation 7:9-10 NASB]

    "For this reason, they are before the throne of God; and they serve Him day and night in His temple; and He who sits on the throne will spread His tabernacle over them. They will hunger no longer, nor thirst anymore; nor will the sun beat down on them, nor any heat; for the Lamb in the center of the throne will be their shepherd, and will guide them to springs of the water of life; and God will wipe every tear from their eyes." [Revelation 7:15-17 NASB]

    "Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb" [Revelation 22:1 NASB]

    "There will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His bond-servants will serve Him" [Revelation 22:3 NASB]

And, as a by the way, if you have been paying attention, you should have noticed that the Holy Spirit is also missing from other visions of God's throne seen by Daniel, Stephen and John. In fact, the third person of a supposedly triune God is curiously absent from the left hand of the Father, all New Testament doxologies, and the opening salutation of most of the New Testament books. [See Is God a Trinity]

Psalm 45:9... Mary Arrayed In Gold?

An article by Mark Brumlev, managing editor of The Catholic Faith magazine, says

    Psalm 45:9 refers to the Queen Mother standing at the king's right hand, arrayed in gold. Hebrews 1:8-9 applies this psalm to Jesus as Messianic King. By extension, Psalm 45:9 would then apply prophetically to the Messianic King's Mother, Mary. [16]

The verse in question reads...

    "King's daughters are among Your noble ladies; At Your right hand stands the queen (Heb. shgl) in gold from Ophir". [Psalms 45:9 NASB].

The problem is that, unless incest is running rampant, under no circumstances can the Hebrew word shgl mean queen mother. The word derives from shgal which means to copulate with, which is why commentators are divided in their opinions... some think it could mean the concubine who was the king's favorite, while others believe it was the chief wife. Shgl is used only one other time in the Old Testament where it quite obviously means the wife of the king

    Then the king said to me, the queen sitting beside him, "How long will your journey be, and when will you return?" So it pleased the king to send me, and I gave him a definite time. [Nehemiah 2:6 NASB]

Are We Sure We Want To Use The Mothers of Kings In The Old Testament as Examples of Mary's Role?

If we are going to insist on going back to the Old Testament for examples of how the mothers of the kings wore crowns, were advisors to their sons, and interceded with them on behalf of others, let us not forget that at least one king (Asa) had an apostate mother, whom he had to remove from being mistress.

    He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother (Heb. gebyrh) , because she had made a horrid image as an Asherah; and Asa cut down her horrid image and burned it at the brook Kidron. [1 Kings 15:9-13 NASB]

Additionally, using Bathsheba's supposed intercessory role as a precedent is a very bad idea.

When Adonijah, the son of Haggith and David's fourth son born to him in Hebron. [2 Samuel 3:4] came to Bathsheba and made one request that she intercede with Solomon on his behalf, because as he said Solomon would not refuse his mother [1 Kings 2:12-17]. The problem is that while Solomon treated his mother with all respect, he not only refused her, but also had Adonijah put to death that very day [1 Kings 2:24-25].

Besides which how do we elaborate and expand ONE incident, when one person asked Bathsheba for help, to mean that the king's mother had an 'intercessory role'.

Proverbs 31

Using Proverbs 31 as an example of how the queen mother advised the king is ridiculous. Proverbs is wisdom literature with no story line, nor principal characters. While it does appeal to divine revelation for the wisdom in it's pages, many of the "instructions" come across as advice from a teacher or parent to a student or child. It is commonly believed that Solomon was the author of Proverbs, but the final two chapters are quite different in style and emphasis from the previous ones, which may point to more than one author. As a matter of fact, Proverbs 31 purports to come from the mother of King Lemuel, although we do not know who this was. Additionally, that these were literally her words is belied by the fact that the chapter is acrostic.... that is, the author used the letters of the Hebrew alphabet as the initial letters for a sequence of verses

Mediator to the Mediator?
In any case, the Bible is very clear.. [Emphasis Added]

    For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, [1 Timothy 2:5 NASB]

If Christ is the one mediator between God and man, it seems rather superfluous that there should also be a mediator between humans and Christ. What for? In any case the book of Hebrews advises us that we can, with confidence, draw near to the throne of grace, and that Jesus, all by Himself, can save "to the uttermost" them that come to God through Him.

    For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin. Therefore let us draw near with confidence to the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need. [Hebrews 4:15-16 NASB]

    Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.  [Hebrews 7:25 KJV]

The author of Hebrews is also very clear... We need to keep our eyes on Jesus, which means keeping our eyes off everyone else.

    fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. [Hebrews 12:2 NASB]

Did Gabriel and Elizabeth's Words Signify Mary Had An Exalted Position?
One of the very few references the Ad Caeli Reginam makes to the Scriptures is to state, in point 9, that it is "not surprising" that

    ".... the early writers of the Church called Mary "the Mother of the King" and "the Mother of the Lord," basing their stand on the words of St. Gabriel the archangel, who foretold that the Son of Mary would reign forever, [Cf. Luc. I, 32, 33] and on the words of Elizabeth who greeted her with reverence and called her "the Mother of my Lord." [Luc. I, 43.] Thereby they clearly signified that she derived a certain eminence and exalted station from the royal dignity of her Son.  [17]

Sadly, this is a classic case of going to the Bible to 'prove' what you have already decided to believe.

Gabriel said that Jesus would "be great" and would be called "the Son of the Most High". The Lord God would give Him the throne of His father David, He would reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom would have no end. [Luke 1:32-33 NASB]. The archangel was simply stating facts about Jesus. It is we who have presumed to use the angel's words to project some of Jesus' eminence onto Mary.

Why Did Elizabeth Call Mary Blessed?
Others, like Mark Brumlev, managing editor of The Catholic Faith magazine (cited earlier) use Elizabeth's words to Mary to try and prove Mary's exalted state. He says

    This is the language of the royal court, with the subordinate (Elizabeth) addressing a royal superior (Mary). Elizabeth was honored, not merely by the presence, in utero, of the child Jesus, but also by Mary herself. Elizabeth said, "Who am I that the Mother of my Lord should come to me?" Elizabeth was honored by the presence of Mary because she is the Queen Mother of the Messianic King, Elizabeth's Lord. [18]

Here is what Elizabeth said [Emphasis Added]

    When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the baby leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. And she cried out with a loud voice and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! And how has it happened to me, that the mother of my Lord would come to me? For behold, when the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord." [Luke 1:41-45 NASB]

Referring to the underlined portions....

It is true that Elizabeth blessed Mary as the mother of her Lord (Vs. 42), which she was. However, we need to keep this in proper perspective. While there is little question that bearing the Messiah was an exceedingly great honour, what Elizabeth praised Mary for was her faith and her obedience. Verse 45 has Elizabeth saying

    "..blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord."

But what about Mary's claim that from that time on all generations would count he blessed.

    Note that Mary's joyful claim that "all generations shall call me blessed" in no way takes away from her humility. If she seems to boast here, it is much as St. Paul does later on in scripture when he says "whoever boasts, should boast in the Lord" (2 Corinthians 10:17), that is to say, in God's work being done through us. [19]

In fact, later on, Jesus reinforced Elizabeth's theology when He clearly stated that obedience to God's will was more important than being humanly related to Him.

Who, According To Jesus, Is "Blessed" And Part of His Family?
In his Gospel, Luke tells the story of an unknown woman in a crowd that was listening to Jesus, who raised her voice and called out

    "Blessed is the womb that bore You and the breasts at which You nursed." [Luke 11:27 NASB]

Jesus' response was, in effect, a mild rebuttal. Note how it is translated in different versions

    But He said, "On the contrary, blessed are those who hear the word of God and observe it." [Luke 11:28 NASB]

    But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.  [Luke 11:28 KJV]

In saying this, Jesus clearly pointed out that in God's order of things, being blessed is a matter of hearing and obeying God's word. 

Similarly, when Mary and His brothers wanted to speak to Him, Jesus appeared not only to decline their request, but again pointed out that doing the will of His Father makes a person part of His (Jesus') family.

    While He was still speaking to the crowds, behold, His mother and brothers were standing outside, seeking to speak to Him. Someone said to Him, "Behold, Your mother and Your brothers are standing outside seeking to speak to You." But Jesus answered the one who was telling Him and said, "Who is My mother and who are My brothers?" And stretching out His hand toward His disciples, He said, "Behold My mother and My brothers! For whoever does the will of My Father who is in heaven, he is My brother and sister and mother." [Matthew 12:46-50 NASB]

    Was Jesus making a point? Certainly! But it seems to be a one that many people today haven't caught on to. There are no blood ties in the Scripture (not even Mary's earthly ties to Jesus) that mean anything in terms of becoming a son/daughter of God. What counts is that every individual, regardless of whom they might be related to, connected with, or what church they may belong to, has to hear and keep His commandments.

Jesus' Last Word To Mary
Many, after reading Calvin's commentary on John 19, come to the conclusion that Calvin believed that the mother-son relationship between Mary and Jesus appears to have to have ceased at Jesus' death. I have read this bit of the commentary (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom35.ix.vi.html), and do not find that it particularly expresses this view. However, if he did believe this, I would find myself in the rather peculiar position of agreeing with John Calvin (I suppose he couldn't have been wrong about everything). The verse in John reads....

    When Jesus then saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing nearby, He *said to His mother, "Woman, behold, your son!" Then He *said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" From that hour the disciple took her into his own household. [John 19:26-27 NASB]

Most Christians take these words to mean that Christ was simply making sure that Mary would be well taken care of when He left. However, one has to consider that, for over three years, He and His disciples moved around quite a bit. As Matthew 9:35 says, they went through all the cities and villages. Matthew 4:25 also says "large crowds followed Him from Galilee and the Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan". As far as we know, Mary was doing all right, during the years Jesus was not physically present most of the time.

Was Jesus simply ensuring that she would be taken care of in her old age? Possibly.

But, if we take into consideration how Christ phrased his words, we should in all honesty, look at one other option. Jesus said nothing to the effect of giving Mary into John's hands, which would have been an expression of safekeeping. Instead to Mary, Jesus said "Woman, behold, your son!" and, to John... "Behold, your mother!".

The word translated behold, is used in the imperative for the purpose of calling attention to something. Jesus seemed to be telling her to look... at her son. It almost seemed that Jesus was appointing John to take His place as Mary's son, now that He, Himself was leaving to take His rightful place at His father's right hand.


Continue In Part II... The Wedding at Cana, The Woman of Revelation 12, Grandiloquent Claptrap Replaces Very Impressive Scriptural Truths,The Magnificat, Conclusion. HERE

Footnote I... Biblical References to Ashtoreth, Asherah and Tammuz

Ashtoreth was Baal's female counterpart and the supreme goddess of Canaan.

    For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians and after Milcom the detestable idol of the Ammonites. [1 Kings 11:5 NASB]

    because they have forsaken Me, and have worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the sons of Ammon; and they have not walked in My ways, doing what is right in My sight and observing My statutes and My ordinances, as his father David did.  [1 Kings 11:33 NASB]

    The high places which were before Jerusalem, which were on the right of the mount of destruction which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the sons of Ammon, the king defiled.  [2 Kings 23:13 NASB]

    Then the sons of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, served the Baals and the Ashtaroth, the gods of Aram, the gods of Sidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of the sons of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines; thus they forsook the LORD and did not serve Him. [Judges 10:6 NASB]

    Then Samuel spoke to all the house of Israel, saying, "If you return to the LORD with all your heart, remove the foreign gods and the Ashtaroth from among you and direct your hearts to the LORD and serve Him alone; and He will deliver you from the hand of the Philistines."  [1 Samuel 7:3 NASB]

Asherah, mistranslated as "grove" in the King James Version, was an Assyrian goddess, mentioned eighteen times in the Old Testament. It is likely that "The Asherah" referred to was a carved tree or pole, that represented the goddess, images of whom were made and worshipped. She also had prophets and vessels used in her service.

    He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother, because she had made a horrid image as an Asherah; and Asa cut down her horrid image and burned it at the brook Kidron. [1 Kings 15:13 NASB. Also See 2 Chronicles 15:16]

    "Now then send and gather to me all Israel at Mount Carmel, together with 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of the Asherah, who eat at Jezebel's table." [1 Kings 18:19 NASB]

    Then the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest and the priests of the second order and the doorkeepers, to bring out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel.  [2 Kings 23:4 NASB]

Tammuz and the Sun God
[9] And He said to me, "Go in and see the wicked abominations that they are committing here."  [10]  So I entered and looked, and behold, every form of creeping things and beasts and detestable things, with all the idols of the house of Israel, were carved on the wall all around. [11] Standing in front of them were seventy elders of the house of Israel, with Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan standing among them, each man with his censer in his hand and the fragrance of the cloud of incense rising.  [12]  Then He said to me, "Son of man, do you see what the elders of the house of Israel are committing in the dark, each man in the room of his carved images? For they say, 'The LORD does not see us; the LORD has forsaken the land.'"  [13]  And He said to me, "Yet you will see still greater abominations which they are committing." [14] Then He brought me to the entrance of the gate of the LORD'S house which was toward the north; and behold, women were sitting there weeping for Tammuz.  [15]  He said to me, "Do you see this, son of man? Yet you will see still greater abominations than these." [16] Then He brought me into the inner court of the LORD'S house. And behold, at the entrance to the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about twenty-five men with their backs to the temple of the LORD and their faces toward the east; and they were prostrating themselves eastward toward the sun. [Ezekiel 8:9-16 NASB]  [PLACE IN TEXT]

[00] The Mysteries of the Rosary. http://www.vatican.va/special/rosary/documents/misteri_en.html

[01] The Mysteries Of The Rosary. Fifth Glorious Mystery: The crowning of Our Lady Queen of Heaven.


[02] Ad Caeli Reginam. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xii On Proclaiming The Queenship Of Mary.


[03] Ubi Primum On The Immaculate Conception. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Ix. February 2, 1849.

[04] NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils. Second Council of Nica (787) The Definition of the Holy, Great, and Ecumenical Seventh Synod. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf214.xvi.x.html

[05] Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer". Harper Perennial; 1st edition (August 3, 1983). Pgs 15-16

[06] Joseph Campbell. The Masks of God Vol. 2: Oriental Mythology. Penguin Books (November 1, 1991.  Pgs 39-40)

[07] Ad Caeli Reginam. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xii On Proclaiming The Queenship Of Mary.

[08] ibid.

[09] Richard Bauckham. Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony Hardcover. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (November 9, 2006) Pg. 71- 72.

[10] Ad Caeli Reginam. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xii On Proclaiming The Queenship Of Mary.


[11] Pope Pius IX. Ubi Primum (On The Immaculate Conception). CatholicCulture.org. Copyright © 2014 Trinity Communications.

[12] Fr. Dwight Longenecker. Mary Queen of Heaven- the Bible Tells Me So.

[13] Hail Holy Queen. November 9, 2007. http://vivacatholic.wordpress.com/2007/11/09/hail-holy-queen/

[14] http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H4761

[15] Ad Caeli Reginam. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xii On Proclaiming The Queenship Of Mary.

[16] Mark Brumley. Queen of Heaven: Pagan Divinity or Royal Mother of the Messiah? CatholicCulture.org.

[17] Ad Caeli Reginam. Encyclical Of Pope Pius Xii On Proclaiming The Queenship Of Mary.


[18] Mark Brumley. Queen of Heaven: Pagan Divinity or Royal Mother of the Messiah? CatholicCulture.org.

[19] Robert L. (Bob)Deffinbaugh. The Worship of Two Women.  (Luke 1:39-56)


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