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Dungeons and Dragons and FRPGs

Written by Sue Bohlin

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Also See Fantasy Games People Play

Also See Dungeons and Dragons Bad? [Below]

Dungeons and Dragons® is a fantasy role playing game (or FRPG). Role playing in and of itself can be a useful exercise of the imagination, such as helping kids practice saying no to drugs or alcohol when offered them at a party, or learning to set boundaries by practicing with a part of one's support group. Fantasy can also be a legitimate exercise of the imagination, and learning to distinguish fantasy from reality is an essential part of maturing intellectually. The problem comes when the values and content in the fantasy affect a person adversely.

In this way, D&D or any other FRPG can be compared to rock music: the genre itself is not inherently evil or dangerous, but the content (lyrics, in the case of rock music) is what makes the difference. The content of D&D and its effect on players are worth examining.

In contrast to a Christian worldview, D&D was created with a magic worldview (and this has not changed over the years). Rather like "the force" of Star Wars, magic is a neutral force, something like gravity, that pervades reality. Characters learn to use magic to manipulate the universe to get what they want. It's a very mechanistic universe, like a vending machine where you insert your coin and out comes a product—only in this universe, people use spells and magical instruments to manipulate the magic toward their desired end. Magic can be used for good or evil.

Two insightful writers, Brian Onken and Elliot Miller, offer a responsible analysis of D&D and FRPGs in general in a paper from Christian Research Institute, "Fantasy Games People Play."{1} They point out that many proponents of D&D try to draw a parallel between their game of choice and the Christian fantasy of J.R.R. Tolkien in Lord of the Rings. There are some common elements, but it's the great differences that are a real problem, differences which proponents of FRPGs "either ignore or rationalize away. Christian fantasy works by Tolkien, Lewis, and others are accepted and considered to be a good use of fantasy because they offer a reflection of an essentially Christian world view."{2}

"Though the creators of Dungeons and Dragons may have borrowed many aspects from Tolkien's 'middle earth,' one part they did not consider was the overall setting in which everything took place and from which everything derived its ultimate meaning — Tolkien's Christian world view. As a result, the game's world view does not represent the moral universe God created. In place of the creator God, its universe is governed by a multiplicity of gods and demigods. Moreover, its universe is not infused with an absolute, inherent morality. The more thoroughly one investigates the writings of Tolkien, Lewis, and others and compares them to FRP games, the more one will see that there are not only crucial differences in the theological and moral perspectives but also in the context and motives of their respective inventors. Furthermore, there are important differences in the kind and extent of participation required in each (e.g., the cultivation of fantasy in the participatory amoral milieu of Dungeons and Dragons versus the passive moral universe of Tolkien)."{3}

The worldview of D&D is anti-biblical because it presents a universe without a transcendent, good God. The deities of D&D are mythical, like the ancient pantheon of the Roman gods and goddesses.

Because most FRPGs pit good against evil, some of their proponents point to the games as moral. But their overall morality is pragmatic (what works to get what you want) at best and amoral at worst.{4} "[T]he universes created in fantasy role-playing games generally tend to be confused on the issue of morality. Though they have borrowed many aspects of Tolkien's 'Middle Earth,' the makers of Dungeons and Dragons and other FRP games have not created theistic 'universes.' Rather, their universes are generally governed by a multiplicity of gods and demigods. While in a theistic universe, good is determined by the attributes of God Himself, in FRP worlds good and evil are presented as equal and opposite impersonal poles, and the gods as well as the creatures may align themselves with either. Since there is no supreme God, and since good does not ultimately triumph over evil, many players eventually find themselves preferring to play evil roles; fewer demands are placed on them that way. "Cornerstone [magazine] quotes Rett Kipp, a college student who plays FRP games forty hours a week: "'In D&D it's better to be evil. You get more advantages being evil, and it's easier to go on and not have to think of what to do and what not to do. If for some reason you had the idea in your head that you no longer trust someone, if you chop him down from behind — as an evil character there's no penalty for it...'"{5}

Time-eating Monster
You can find any number of family members who have watched FRPGs gobble up their loved ones as they spend hours every day, or each week, engrossed in "their game," either online or in real life. Students have flunked out of school because they didn't go to class or do their homework. People have lost their jobs because they were more committed to playing their game than keeping their commitments at work. And nobody knows how many relationships have collapsed because people were consumed by their games to the exclusion of all else. The popular online game "EverQuest" has been aptly nicknamed "EverCrack" by many players.{6}

Brian Onken writes, "In a world where more and more demands are made on our time and there seems less and less time available to accomplish the tasks at hand, Dungeons & Dragons (and other fantasy role-playing games) is indeed a creature with a voracious appetite. One of the main requirements of the game is time, and lots of it. Gary Gygax, the originator of Dungeons & Dragons, says:

    'the most extensive requirement is time.'{7}

    "As advocates of the game get more involved it has a tendency to become a sort of time eating monster in and of itself. After playing the game with her family, a New West magazine researcher noted that, 'Good or evil, it becomes a compulsive force in the lives of those who play.'{8} "What is the problem here? Well, we are exhorted to 'walk, not as unwise men, but as wise, making the most of your time, because the days are evil' (Eph. 5:15, 16). In the light of such words, a fantasy game with a ferocious appetite for time is hardly the wise way to walk. To play one will require a tremendous amount of time, and since no one wants to play badly, perhaps such time consumption would best be exchanged for more profitable pursuits." {9}

Bill Schnoebelen, who spent years in the occult before coming to Christ, says, "Remember, as a Christian, we are exhorted to bring 'into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ' (2 Cor. 10:5). How can this be done with so many hours being spent in a game which never mentions Christ and pushes the very sorcery He forbids?"{10}

Blurred Reality
While many people have no trouble distinguishing between reality and fantasy, some FRPG players are sucked into what could be called "reality distortion." Players sometimes begin to think of their characters as real people with separate existences. (This is not limited to FRPG, however. I know of one person so caught up in the Left Behind series that she fell asleep thinking about the characters and action in the book she was reading, and upon waking, found herself praying for a character in crisis! And many fans of TV shows don't really "get it" that the actor who plays a character has a real-life, different existence from the one he or she plays on TV. Not to mention the many letters the author of the Harry Potter books has received from children begging for acceptance into the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry!)

One Dungeon Master (the person with the most control and power in a D&D game) noted that sometimes, when a player's character gets killed, the game player sometimes suffers psychic shock and may go into depression.{11}

Magic and the Occult
Whether the discussion is Harry Potter or D&D, the objection inevitably arises that this is make believe, it's fiction, and fairy-tale magic doesn't exist in the real world, so what's the big deal?

Elliot Miller of CRI points out, "We must agree that there is a fundamental difference between actually attempting to work magic, and only pretending to do so (this point has not been sufficiently recognized in some of the Christian reviews). However real this distinction may be in the minds of the players, though, I feel no assurance that the spirit world will not respond when it is beckoned."{12}

Others experienced in spiritual warfare have observed that the very real demonic realm are quite legalistic and literal: when anyone opens a door to them, they will come through it! Most people are completely oblivious to the reality of their choices opening a door to the demonic, but the consequences catch up with them. This is one reason God has said that all forms of magic are an abomination to Him (Deut. 18)—out of His loving desire to protect us.

    Miller continues, "Though the possibility of actual contact with the satanic realm through role-playing cannot be denied, my greatest concern is that FRP involvement can create a predisposition toward actual occult activity. There are certain needs and desires which draw people to FRP in the first place. Many sensitive teenagers and adults continually bombarded with evolutionary theories and naturalistic philosophies, seek through FRP an escape from the cold, mechanistic view of the universe which they've been led to believe is 'reality.' Who wouldn't prefer an adventurous existence in a magical, purposeful world over the complex, impersonal 'real world' being pushed on young people by our educational institutions and the media?"{13}

I would suggest that that "predisposition toward actual occult activity" is indeed, a door propped open for demons to enter in. When players' views of magic and occultic exercises of power (even pretend) are shaped to see them in a positive, friendly light, they are accepting the very things God condemns. They are buying a lie, and intentionally or not, embracing rebellion against one of God's absolutes. Internalizing lies and rebellion provides a place for the Enemy to gain first a foothold (Eph. 4:27) and then a stronghold (2 Cor. 10:4-5).

So the occultic magic element of D&D and any other FRPG can be spiritually dangerous.

    Bill Schnoebelen says, "Even if you have no intention to 'do magic' when you play D&D, you are immersing yourself in an alien, magic worldview which can gradually change the way you think about life and spiritual matters."{14}

But what about the magic in the works of Tolkien and Lewis? That kind of fantasy magic is different because the worldview of the literature is biblical, and consistent with the world God made. Behind all the magic is a good, transcendent, holy God. Magic doesn't have a life and power of its own, as a force to be manipulated. Furthermore, the magic in the books of Tolkien and Lewis and other Christian fantasy writers is viewed passively by the reader. In D&D, the player is immersed in the story, and actively uses occult magic as part of the game.

Lust for Power
Elliot Miller writes, "The human craving for power is also given an avenue for expression in FRP games. . . The various magical abilities that players exercise in these imaginary worlds can also whet their appetites for power. The same young man who is unable to prevent his parents from separating, or to make the cute blonde in his history class notice him, can, through FRP, conquer a kingdom or obtain immense treasure simply by casting a spell.

    "What happens, then, when the inevitable occurs and this young man is befriended by someone who can introduce him to the occult world? He will discover that practices he has enjoyed in his fantasy world actually go on in the real world. He would like nothing more than to believe that he can divine the future, project his soul outside of his body, perform healings, or cast a spell — and get results. The transition from make-believe sorcery to actual sorcery would not be all that difficult. Once he encounters the real power that exists in the occult world, he will happily accept the magical world view of occultism in place of the naturalism he had absorbed."{15}

Bill Schnoebelen makes an excellent point about the lust for power:

    "Make no mistake about it, magic and sorcery ARE spiritual. It does not matter if they are 'make believe' magic or not. It is the mind that is the battleground. I just recently had a D&D player who professed Christ tell me that everything he did had Christ in it, because Christ lived in him, even as he was playing D&D. While that may be true of a Christian, the question needs to be asked: is Christ pleased with what His servant is doing? "I used the metaphor of a porn role-playing game, where the participants play acted in various forms of sexual sin such as fornication, adultery or homosexuality. There was no actual sexual touching involved among the players, nor any nudity required. It was all in the mind. Would Jesus be pleased with that? "See, most of us can understand that concept better because most of us are more familiar with the power human sexuality can have over our minds. It is one of the most powerful forces God created within us. Yet, what most Christian gamers do not understand that magic is a kind of spiritual lust. Allowing the concepts of magic and sorcery into our minds awakens within us a kind of sexual itch that has no definable source or cause. It is, however subtle, an itch for power. Magic, at its root, is about power and about rebellion. It is about not liking how God runs the universe and thinking you can do a better job yourself.

    "Now of course, we are not saying that everyone who plays D&D is going to end up a sorcerer or a Satanist. But we are saying that being exposed to all these ideas of magic to the degree that the game requires cannot but help have a significant impact on the minds of the players, no matter if they are Christian or unbeliever, and no matter what the 'template.'

    "This is not just chess, football or bridge. This is a game that envelops the player in an entirely different fantasy world in which the power of magic and violence is pervasive. It is a game with a distinct and seductive spiritual worldview that is diametrically opposed to the Bible. Yes, sorcery appears in the Bible. But it is NEVER in the context of a good thing to do. It is always presented as something dangerous and utterly contrary to the will of God.

    "The question still stands. Why would a Christian wish to involve themselves in such a game?"{16}

Heart Issue
Onken and Miller offer this insightful analysis of the heart issue:

    "[N]either fantasy nor fantasy role playing is wrong in and of itself. When carried out within the context of the Christian world view, it can serve as a useful and creative activity. We are creatures made in the image of an imaginative God, and we should consider it a privilege to possess and exercise this precious gift of imagination. But we must also realize our obligation before God to use this gift in a wholesome way, and to guard against any misuse.

"Discerning the difference between a wholesome use and misuse begins with the question, 'To what end or for what purpose (is the imagination) being exercised in a particular direction?' This certainly appears to be the question Jesus had in mind in His Sermon on the Mount when He stated, 'Every one who looks on a woman to lust for her has committed adultery with her already in his heart' (Matthew 5:28). "If Jesus taught that lust is tantamount to adultery (which God condemns — see Deuteronomy 5:18, 22:13-27), would He approve of the deliberate cultivation and enjoyment of fantasy regarding other things that God condemns? Obviously not. To fantasize about those things that God has forbidden in His Word (immorality, the occult, the pursuit of other deities — all elements of Dungeons and Dragons) is tantamount to doing them. This cannot be understood in any other way than a misuse of our God-given imagination.

"With the Bible as our guide, this is what we as Christians must guard against 'so that [we] may walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, to please Him in all respects' (Colossians 1:10)."{17}

1."Fantasy Games People Play" Christian Resource Institute,
2.Ibid, p. 2.
3.Ibid., p. 2-3
4."Should a Christian Play Dungeons and Dragons?", William Schnoebelen, www.chick.com/articles/frpg.asp.
5."Fantasy Games People Play," p. 7.
6."When Games Stop Being Fun," April 12, 2002, http://news.com.com/2100-1040&-881673.html
7.Gary Gygax, Dungeons and Dragons, basic manual. TSR Hobbies, Inc., 1979, 3. Quoted in "Fantasy Games People Play," p. 4.
8.Moira Johnston, "It's Only a Game — Or Is It?", New West, (August 25, 1980), 34. Quoted in "Fantasy Games People Play," p. 4.
9.Fantasy Games People Play, p. 4.
10.Should a Christian Play Dungeons and Dragons?, op.cit.
11.John Eric Holmes, "Confessions of a Dungeon Master," Psychology Today (November 1980), 89. Cited in "Fantasy Games People Play," p. 4.
12.Fantasy Games People Play, p. 5.
14.Should Christians Play Dungeons and Dragons? Op cit.
15.Fantasy Games People Play, p. 5-6.
16.Should Christians Play Dungeons and Dragons? Op cit.
17.Ibid., p. 3.

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Dungeons and Dragons Bad?
By Jim Carroll.
[1999 Christian Sentinel]

"Swords and sorcery best describes what the game is all about, for those are the two key fantasy ingredients. Advanced Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy game of role playing which relies upon the imagination of the participants, for it is certainly make-believe, yet it is so interesting, so challenging, so mind-unleashing that it comes near reality." [1] To those unfamiliar with role playing games in general and D&D in particular, the preceding quote may seem like a neat sales pitch. It is however, not far from the mark. The quote is from the Introduction to Advanced D&D Players Handbook.

In their article, "Fantasy Games People Play," [2] John Weldon and James Bjornstad define four criteria for critical evaluation of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (D&D for short). (1) the role of fantasy, (2) escapism, (3) morality, (4) occultism. Their article primarily deals with the first category. To summarize their conclusions, "fantasy," as such, is not inherently abhorrent. The "imagination" is a God given gift important for creativity and development, and as such, is not inherently wrong. As they point out: "Who can doubt that a child’s imagination in play, even in role playing, is a positive component of his social and intellectual development." [3] There are also great Christian fantasies such as the C. S. Lewis’ The Chronicles of Narnia. The authors of D&D claim that "Advanced Dungeons and Dragons is first and foremost a game for the fun and enjoyment of those who seek to use imagination and creativity. ... For fun, excitement, and captivating fantasy, AD&D is unsurpassed." [4]

However, while fantasy is not inherently wrong, it is also not inherently good or right either. It is the application, or "role" of "fantasy" that is right or wrong. In a critical evaluation, the question that must be asked is "What is the ‘world view’ being promulgated via any particular application of fantasy in general?" For the case of D&D in particular, this article will attempt to answer that question as well as the other criteria. To fully appreciate the power of D&D as a tool in selling a particular worldview, and to understand the potent effect it can have on its adherents, it is important to understand how the game is played.

The Game
It is difficult to describe the game and its play to someone unfamiliar with the style of gaming (i.e. Fantasy Role-Playing) because it is not what usually comes to mind when someone thinks of a "game." In the words of Gary Gygax, (author of the games)" .... Advanced Dungeons and Dragons is, as are most role playing games, "open-ended." There is no "winner," no final objective, and the campaign grows and changes as it matures." [5]

The "game board" is primarily the minds of the gaming participants where you "act out" the part of a character in a fantasy fiction. You create a gaming persona, commonly referred to as a "character," that you will "act out" the part of in the game. There is a set of rules and guidelines for creation of characters that yield a wide variety of attributes that your character will be made up of. While most of the character creation is simply selection of these attributes by the player, there are certain attributes, referred to as "character abilities," that are determined by the roll of the dice. You "act out the game as this character, staying within your ‘god-given abilities,’ and as molded by your philosophical and moral ethics (called alignment). You interact with your fellow role players, not as Jim and Bob and Mary who work at the office together, but as Falstaff the Fighter, Angore the cleric, and Filmar, the mistress of magic!" [6]

One of the gamers must act as the "god" of the world that the players will be acting out their roles in. This "referee" is usually referred to as the "Dungeon Master" or DM. The DM is actually the creator of the "adventure" that the players partake in. The DM is the absolute sovereign in the adventure world which is the fantasy land that the players experience; he controls the situations via a complex set of rules and probability tables for various occurrences. The DM provides the ‘glue’ that holds the fantasy world together by providing a reference for the experiences of the characters traveling through the adventure. He basically provides for them all of the experiences of the fantasy through vivid descriptions, i.e. he provides the feedback for the characters of the fantasy world as they proceed through it, just as the real world provides the feedback to us as we proceed through it. Because of this, enjoyment of the game is directly related to the skill, imagination, eloquence, and preparation of the DM and the "world" that he has created. If the DM can provide ‘real enough’ feedback, vivid enough experiences, surpassing challenges, etc., the game can become quite enjoyable for the players as they travel through this world acting out whatever parts and actions they choose to.

What the game becomes to those who get deeply into it, and what it became for me at disparate times throughout junior high school through early college, is a vehicle of total escapism. Escapism is what the game is all about which is in essence what Gary Gygax claims in the introduction to the "Players Handbook." As Gary Gygax writes: "The game lets all of your fantasies come true. ...Enjoy, for this game is what dreams are made of." [7] Because, for many players he is not stretching the truth in the previous statements, the game can become very seductive. Once seduced by the escapism aspect it allows you to live out actions and experiment with behaviors that you would normally never even consider. Since the game includes: the casting of spells or sorcery, complete with ingredients and incantations, the worship of various deities (or devils if you’re so inclined and your "alignment" permits), communication with spirits, the undead, telepathic abilities (referred to as "psionics"), it can become a full color advertisement for the occult. Many cases of individuals being introduced to the occult via D&D, where much deeper involvement ensued, have been documented in a number of other places.

At this point an objection may be raised because the same claims can be made of Hollywood entertainment. Many movies and TV programs are nothing more than escapism for people "addicted" to them. Movie entertainment allows the viewer to "live out" the experiences that they would never normally be able to. However, the absolute freedom of choice in D&D can never be replicated through a Hollywood movie. The player can do and experiment with WHATEVER they want to in D&D, and not simply what the writers of a particular movie have scripted.

A determination of the "morality" of D&D can only be made via the examination of the worldview embraced by the game. Does the game espouse a Christian morality, that is, does it advocate a Biblical worldview with respect to a system of right and wrong? The answer to the question is a resounding "NO!" As far as the game is concerned there is no right or wrong.

While the view that "there is no absolute right or wrong" is a popular (if not almost ubiquitous) view in today’s secular society, the Bible declares that there is a transcendent personal God that has set up an absolute standard of right and wrong. In the alternate universe of the D&D game, there is no transcendent God, only a pantheon of mythical, capricious gods that whimsically influence reality. As a result the universe within the game is devoid of any kind of absolute moral standard.

In the game manual of the new computer fantasy roll playing game called "The Elder Scrolls: Arena" by "Bethesda Softworks," the chief designer indicates that he is an avid old fashioned "pen-and-pencil" fantasy role playing game aficionado. He states that one of his main objectives in "The Elder Scrolls" is to make a computer version of a fantasy role playing game that is as limitless and open as its original non computer counterparts. In that manual the chief designer writes: "In The Elder Scrolls there is no absolute right or wrong. We have always held that the idea of ‘good vs. Evil’ is a bit cliché, however effective it may be for running a story." [8] Besides the fact that this statement is logically self refuting, he goes on to say, "If you wish to be a thief who robs innocent nobles, fine. If you wish to play a warrior who makes it his mission in life to kill these thieves, that’s fine too." [9] His commitment to the escapism aspects of the game becomes obvious as he writes that a large effort was made so that the player "would get to journey within the most realistic fantasy environment possible without being forced into yet another boring world (any of us can do that by just looking out the window)." [10]

The authors of D&D present an array of what they call "Alignments" to be selected from. Alignment is a dual range of Lawful-Neutral-Chaotic and Good-Neutral-Evil. In other words a character can be: Lawful Good, Lawful Neutral, Lawful Evil, Chaotic Good, Chaotic Neutral, Chaotic Evil, Neutral Good, Neutral Neutral (referred to as "True Neutral"), and Neutral Evil. Since there is no absolute standard of right and wrong, each of these alignments are equally "valid." The authors do not define "Good" as "right" but they define it as "human rights" and "life, relative freedom, and prospect of happiness" [11] and therefore a person that holds any of these as a valuable ethos, is defined as "Good." Not that these things are not "good," but are they what "Good" or "Right" IS? Certain characters can obtain certain advantages by being of a particular alignment but none is "correct." And the character’s alignment is usually chosen on the basis of pure pragmatism. Alignment is important to a character because of the particular deity that that character may worship. Lawful-Evil deity would not look sympathetically on "Good" acts by one of its patrons and in turn may not grant answers to prayer, etc.

The occultic aspects of the game are manifold. The casting of spells and the tapping into unseen forces give the game an animistic flavor. The spell casting can be accompanied by various symbols and practices that are straight out of occultic literature and expressly forbidden by scripture. The standard objection to these claims is usually along the lines of "Oh, It’s just a game!," and while that may be true, it does not change the fact that the game mimics actual occultic practices often VERY closely providing the player an ample introduction to occult practices.

    IPS Note: This is almost exactly the same situation found with JK Rowlings, author of the Harry Potter books. That Rowling studied mythology and witchcraft in order to make her books more accurate, seems to have escaped Harry Potter’s Christian supporters. [See Harry Potter.. Fact or Fiction]

As previously mentioned, the alternate world where D&D is played is a polytheistic world where the worship of various deities is not just an option, but a requirement of continued successful game play. The player, through their imagination, partakes of a world where various gods govern and paganism is the rule; it’s the "truth" of the D&D world. The desensitizing of the player to a neopagan worldview could have catastrophic effects. The connection with Satanism has been thoroughly documented in many other places and an obsession with D&D is quoted repeatedly by cult experts as one of the signs that someone is involved with a satanic or neopagan cult. NOT to say that everyone that plays D&D is in a satanic cult, but the reverse (i.e. those in satanic and neopagan cults are very often D&D aficionados) is very often the case.

In the well known Sean Sellers case in the mid 1980s D&D was certainly one of the catalysts for propelling a youth into satanic occultism and eventually to murder. After discovering the occult and Satanism, Sean Seller’s "as a 12-year-old ... discovered the role playing game Dungeons and Dragons, it fueled his darkening fantasies." [12] He went deeper and deeper into the occult and his passion for D&D grew until he killed a convenience store clerk, and his mother and stepfather as they slept while he was "paying homage to Satan."

Author’s Note
There is much controversy in the church as to a position on D&D. Some think it’s harmless fun, others equate playing D&D with Satanism. The effects of the game vary from participant to participant and I can’t say that there are not people out there that it is harmless fun for. Then again I can’t say that for others, it’s not experimentation with Satanism. This leaves me in a precarious position. I gave the game up because I felt convicted about playing it; I can’t imagine that it would be God’s will to involve any of his children in the kind of seductive escapism, with blatant anti-biblical themes, provided by D&D. Remember, we are to "bring into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ" (2 Cor. 10:15).


End Notes
1 "Advanced D&D Players Handbook" – by Gary Gygax, 1978, Introduction, page 7

2 "Fantasy Games People Play" – John Weldon and James Bjornstad, Dec. 1984, Contemporary Christian Magazine.

3 ibid

4 "Advanced D&D, Dungeon Masters Guide" – Gary Gygax, 1979, page 9

5 Advanced D&D Players Handbook by Gary Gygax

6 ibid

7 ibid

8 "The Elder Scrolls: Arena, Players Guide" – Bethesda Softworks, Media Technologies Limited, 1993

9 ibid

10 ibid

11 "Advanced D&D Dungeon Masters Guide" – by Gary Gygax, 1979

12 "People" 12/1/86, Vol. 26, No. 22, pg. 154-161 Institute, P.O. Box 7000, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688-7000


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